Mary II of England

Mary II (30 April 1662  28 December 1694) was Queen of England, Scotland, and Ireland, co-reigning with her husband, William III & II, from 1689 until her death in 1694.

Mary II
Portrait by Sir Godfrey Kneller, 1690
Queen of England, Scotland, and Ireland
Reign1689[lower-alpha 1] – 28 December 1694
Coronation11 April 1689
PredecessorJames II & VII
SuccessorWilliam III & II
Co-monarchWilliam III & II
Born30 April 1662
(N.S.: 10 May 1662)
St James's Palace, London
Died28 December 1694 (aged 32)
(N.S.: 7 January 1695)
Kensington Palace, London
Burial5 March 1695
(m. 1677)
FatherJames II & VII
MotherAnne Hyde

Although their father James, Duke of York, was Roman Catholic, Mary and her younger sister, Anne, were raised as Anglicans at the behest of their uncle, Charles II. Charles lacked legitimate children, making Mary second in the line of succession. She married her Protestant first cousin, William of Orange, in 1677. Charles died in 1685 and James took the throne, making Mary heir presumptive. James's attempts at rule by decree and the birth of his son, James Francis Edward, led to his deposition in the Glorious Revolution of 1688 and the adoption of the English Bill of Rights.

William and Mary became king and queen regnant. Mary mostly deferred to William, a renowned military leader and principal opponent of Louis XIV, when he was in England. She did, however, act alone when William was engaged in military campaigns abroad, proving herself to be a powerful, firm, and effective ruler. Mary's death from smallpox at the age of 32 left William as sole ruler until his own death in 1702, when he was succeeded by Mary's sister, Anne.