The Mashriq (Arabic: ٱلْمَشْرِق), sometimes spelled Mashreq or Mashrek, is the eastern part of the Arab world, located in Western Asia and eastern North Africa.[6] This includes the Arab states of Bahrain, Egypt, Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Oman, Palestine, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Sudan, Syria, the United Arab Emirates and Yemen,[1][7][8][9] but excludes the non-Arab states of Somalia, Djibouti and the Comoros, which are also members of the Arab League. Poetically the "Place of Sunrise", the name is derived from the verb sharaqa (Arabic: شرق "to shine, illuminate, radiate" and "to rise"), from sh-r-q root (ش-ر-ق), referring to the east, where the sun rises.[10][11]

Countries and territories
Map depicting the area most conservatively known as the Mashriq[2][3][4][5]


As the word Mashriq refers to countries located between the Mediterranean Sea and Iran, it is the companion term to Maghreb (Arabic: ٱلْمَغْرِب), the western part of North Africa. Libya may be regarded as straddling the two regions, receiving influences from both the Maghreb and the Mashriq, with its eastern part (Cyrenaica) being linked more to Egypt and the Mashriq.[12]

These geographical terms date from the early Islamic expansion. The Mashriq corresponds to the Bilad al-Sham and Mesopotamian regions combined.[13] As of 2014, the Mashriq is home to 1.7% of the global population.[14][15][16][17][18][19]


The map of the network

All of the countries located in the Arab Mashreq area are members of the Arab League (although Syria's membership is currently suspended), the Greater Arab Free Trade Area, and the United Nations. The region cooperates in several projects including the Arab Mashreq International Road Network and the Arab Mashreq International Railway. Several nations are also members of the GCC and others have tried to achieve political unity in the past, such as the United Arab Republic in the 1960s and 1970s, which originally included both Egypt and Syria.

See also


  1. "Mashriq GEOGRAPHICAL REGION, MIDDLE EAST". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 12 March 2018.
  2. "About ANPGR". Arab Network of Plant Genetic Resources.
  3. "Mashreq". Association of Agricultural Research Institutions in the Near East & North Africa. Archived from the original on 2017-02-24. Retrieved 2016-05-02.
  4. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on March 4, 2016. Retrieved August 19, 2015.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  5. "لماذا يستثنى الأردن من التقسيم؟ الوضع الداخلي هو العنصر الحاسم*فهد الخيطان" [Why is Jordan exempted from the division? The internal situation is a critical component * Fahd strings]. (in Arabic). Rasseen. 2014-07-13.
  6. bank, world. "Economic interrogation in the mashriq" (PDF). siteresources.
  7. "European Neighbourhood Policy in the Mashreq Countries: Enhancing Prospects for Reform". Centre for European Policy Studies. 2005-09-01. Archived from the original on 2014-02-01. Retrieved 2014-01-17.
  8. Introduction to Migration and the Mashreq Archived February 3, 2014, at the Wayback Machine
  9. "Migrants from the Maghreb and Mashreq Countries" (PDF). IOM International Organization for Migration. July 2002. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2014-02-02. Retrieved 2014-01-19.
  10. Alvarez, Lourdes María (2009). Abu Al-Ḥasan Al-Shushtarī. Paulist Press. p. 157. ISBN 978-0-8091-0582-3.
  11. Peek, Philip M.; Yankah, Kwesi (2003-12-12). African Folklore: An Encyclopedia. Routledge. p. 442. ISBN 978-1-135-94873-3.
  12. Gall, Michel Le; Perkins, Kenneth (2010). The Maghrib in Question: Essays in History and Historiography. University of Texas Press. p. 8. ISBN 978-0-292-78838-1.
  13. Clancy-Smith, Julia (2013-11-05). North Africa, Islam and the Mediterranean World. Routledge. p. 98. ISBN 978-1-135-31213-8.
  14. Official estimate of the Population of Egypt Archived May 25, 2013, at the Wayback Machine
  15. UN estimate for Lebanon
  16. Official Jordanian population clock Archived January 17, 2012, at the Wayback Machine
  17. "National Main Statistical Indicators". State of Palestine – Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics. Archived from the original on 2016-12-03. Retrieved 2016-05-02.
  18. UN estimate for Syria
  19. "Iraq". The World Bank.