Mehmed the Conqueror

Mehmed II (Ottoman Turkish: محمد ثانى, romanized: Meḥmed-i s̱ānī; Turkish: II. Mehmed, pronounced [icinˈdʒi ˈmehmed]; 30 March 1432  3 May 1481), commonly known as Mehmed the Conqueror (Ottoman Turkish: ابو الفتح, romanized: Ebū'l-Fetḥ, lit.'the Father of Conquest'; Turkish: Fatih Sultan Mehmed), was an Ottoman sultan who ruled from August 1444 to September 1446, and then later from February 1451 to May 1481. In Mehmed II's first reign, he defeated the crusade led by John Hunyadi after the Hungarian incursions into his country broke the conditions of the truce Peace of Szeged. When Mehmed II ascended the throne again in 1451 he strengthened the Ottoman navy and made preparations to attack Constantinople. At the age of 21, he conquered Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul) and brought an end to the Byzantine Empire.

Mehmed the Conqueror
Kayser-i Rûm (Caesar of the Romans)
The Sultan of Two Lands and the Khan of Two Seas[1]
Portrait of Mehmed II by Gentile Bellini, dating 1480
7th Sultan of the Ottoman Empire (Padishah)
1st reignAugust 1444 – September 1446
PredecessorMurad II
SuccessorMurad II
2nd reign3 February 1451 – 3 May 1481
PredecessorMurad II
SuccessorBayezid II
Born30 March 1432
Edirne, Ottoman Sultanate
Died3 May 1481(1481-05-03) (aged 49)
Hünkârçayırı (Tekfurçayırı), near Gebze, Ottoman Empire
Burial
Consorts
Issue
Names
Mehmed bin Murad Han
DynastyOttoman
FatherMurad II
MotherHüma Hatun
ReligionSunni Islam[2][3]
Tughra

After the conquest Mehmed claimed the title "Caesar" of the Roman Empire (قیصر‎ روم Qayser-i Rûm), based on the fact that Constantinople had been the seat and capital of the surviving Eastern Roman Empire since its consecration in 330 AD by Emperor Constantine I.[4] The claim was only recognized by the Patriarchate of Constantinople. Nonetheless, Mehmed II viewed the Ottoman state as a continuation of the Roman Empire for the remainder of his life, seeing himself as "continuing" the Empire rather than "replacing" it.

Mehmed continued his conquests in Anatolia with its reunification and in Southeast Europe as far west as Bosnia. At home he made many political and social reforms, encouraged the arts and sciences, and by the end of his reign, his rebuilding program had changed Constantinople into a thriving imperial capital. He is considered a hero in modern-day Turkey and parts of the wider Muslim world. Among other things, Istanbul's Fatih district, Fatih Sultan Mehmet Bridge and Fatih Mosque are named after him.