Michigan

Michigan (/ˈmɪʃɪɡən/ (listen)) is a state in the Great Lakes region of the upper Midwestern United States. Its name derives from a gallicized variant of the original Ojibwe word ᒥᓯᑲᒥ (mishigami),[7] meaning 'large water' or 'large lake'.[2][8] With a population of nearly 10.1 million and a total area of nearly 97,000 sq mi (250,000 km2), Michigan is the 10th-largest state by population, the 11th-largest by area, and the largest east of the Mississippi River.[lower-alpha 2] Its capital is Lansing, and its largest city is Detroit. Metro Detroit is among the nation's most populous and largest metropolitan economies.

Michigan
State of Michigan
Nickname(s): 
"The Great Lake(s) State",[1] "The Wolverine State", "The Mitten State", "Water (Winter) Wonderland"
Motto(s): 
Si quaeris peninsulam amoenam circumspice
(English: "If you seek a pleasant peninsula, look about you")
Anthem: "My Michigan"
Map of the United States with Michigan highlighted
CountryUnited States
Before statehoodMichigan Territory
Admitted to the UnionJanuary 26, 1837 (26th)
CapitalLansing
Largest cityDetroit
Largest metro and urban areasDetroit
Government
  GovernorGretchen Whitmer (D)
  Lieutenant GovernorGarlin Gilchrist (D)
LegislatureMichigan Legislature
  Upper houseSenate
  Lower houseHouse of Representatives
JudiciaryMichigan Supreme Court
U.S. senatorsDebbie Stabenow (D)
Gary Peters (D)
U.S. House delegation7 Democrats
7 Republicans (list)
Area
  Total96,716 sq mi (250,493 km2)
Area rank11th
Dimensions
  Length456[2] mi (734 km)
  Width386[2] mi (621 km)
Elevation
900 ft (270 m)
Highest elevation1,979 ft (603 m)
Lowest elevation571 ft (174 m)
Population
 (2020)
  Total10,077,331[4]
  Rank10th
  Density174/sq mi (67.1/km2)
  Density rank17th
  Median household income
$54,909[5]
  Income rank
34th
Demonym(s)Michigander, Michiganian, Yooper (for residents of the Upper Peninsula)[6]
Language
  Official languageNone (English, de facto)
  Spoken languageEnglish 91.11%
Spanish 2.93%
Arabic 1.04%
Other 4.92%
Time zones
most of stateUTC−05:00 (Eastern)
  Summer (DST)UTC−04:00 (EDT)
4 U.P. counties (Gogebic, Iron, Dickinson, and Menominee)UTC−06:00 (Central)
  Summer (DST)UTC−05:00 (CDT)
USPS abbreviation
MI
ISO 3166 codeUS-MI
Traditional abbreviationMich.
Latitude41°41′ N to 48°18′ N
Longitude82°7′ W to 90°25′ W
Websitewww.michigan.gov
Michigan state symbols
Living insignia
BirdAmerican robin (Turdus migratorius)
FishBrook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis)
FlowerApple blossom (Malus domestica)
Wildflower: Dwarf lake iris (Iris lacustris)
MammalUnofficial: Wolverine (Gulo gulo luscus)
Game animal: White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus)
ReptilePainted turtle (Chrysemys picta)
TreeEastern white pine (Pinus strobus)
Inanimate insignia
FossilMastodon (Mammut americanum)
GemstoneIsle Royale greenstone
RockPetoskey stone
SoilKalkaska sand
State route marker
State quarter
Released in 2004
Lists of United States state symbols

Michigan is the only state to consist of two peninsulas. The Lower Peninsula is shaped like a mitten. The Upper Peninsula (often called "the U.P.") is separated from the Lower Peninsula by the Straits of Mackinac, a five-mile (8 km) channel that joins Lake Huron to Lake Michigan. The Mackinac Bridge connects the peninsulas. Michigan has the longest freshwater coastline of any political subdivision in the world, being bordered by four of the five Great Lakes, plus Lake St. Clair.[9] It also has 64,980 inland lakes and ponds.[10]

The area was first occupied by a succession of Native American tribes over thousands of years. Inhabited by natives, Métis, and French explorers in the 17th century, it was claimed as part of the New France colony. After France's defeat in the French and Indian War in 1762, the region came under British rule. Britain ceded the territory to the newly independent United States after Britain's defeat in the American Revolutionary War. The area was part of the larger Northwest Territory until 1800, when western Michigan became part of the Indiana Territory. Michigan Territory was formed in 1805, but some of the northern border with Canada was not agreed upon until after the War of 1812. Michigan was admitted into the Union in 1837 as the 26th state, a free one. It soon became an important center of industry and trade in the Great Lakes region and a popular émigré destination in the late 19th and early 20th centuries; immigration from many European countries to Michigan was also the busiest at that time, especially for those who emigrated from Finland, Macedonia and the Netherlands.[11]

Although Michigan developed a diverse economy, it is widely known as the center of the U.S. automotive industry, which developed as a major economic force in the early 20th century. It is home to the country's three major automobile companies (whose headquarters are all in Metro Detroit). While sparsely populated, the Upper Peninsula is important for tourism due to its abundance of natural resources,[12][13] while the Lower Peninsula is a center of manufacturing, forestry, agriculture, services, and high-tech industry.