Mindanao (/ˌmɪndəˈn/ (listen) MIN-də-NOW) (Jawi: مينداناو) is the second-largest island in the Philippines, after Luzon, and seventh-most populous island in the world. Located in the southern region of the archipelago, the island is part of an island group of the same name that also includes its adjacent islands, notably the Sulu Archipelago. According to the 2020 census, Mindanao has a population of 26,252,442 people, while the entire island group has an estimated population of 27,021,036 according to the 2021 census.

Mindanao mainland and its group of islands.
Location within the Philippines
Coordinates8°00′N 125°00′E
Adjacent to
Major islands
Area97,530 km2 (37,660 sq mi)[1]
Area rank19th
Highest elevation2,954 m (9692 ft)
Highest pointMount Apo
Largest settlementDavao City (pop. 1,776,949)
  • Mindanaoan
  • Mindanawan
  • Mindanawon
  • Mindanaon
Population27,021,036 (2021) (Mindanao island group) [2]
Pop. density243/km2 (629/sq mi)
Ethnic groups

Mindanao is divided into six administrative regions: the Zamboanga Peninsula, Northern Mindanao, the Caraga region, the Davao region, Soccsksargen, and the autonomous region of Bangsamoro. According to the 2020 census, Davao City is the most populous city on the island, with 1,776,949 people, followed by Zamboanga City (pop. 977,234), Cagayan de Oro (pop. 728,402), General Santos (pop. 697,315), Butuan (pop. 372,910), Iligan (pop. 363,115) and Cotabato City (pop. 325,079).[3] About 70% of residents identify as Christian and 24% as Muslim.[4][needs update]

Mindanao is considered the major breadbasket of the Philippines,[5] with eight of the top 10 agri-commodities exported from the Philippines coming from the island itself.[6]

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