Minerva /mɪˈnɜːrvə/ (Latin: [mɪˈnɛrwa]; Etruscan: Menrva) is the Roman goddess of wisdom and strategic warfare, justice, law, victory, and the sponsor of arts, trade, and strategy. Minerva is not a patron of violence such as Mars, but of defensive war only.[2] From the second century BC onward, the Romans equated her with the Greek goddess Athena.[3] Minerva is one of the three Roman deities in the Capitoline Triad, along with Jupiter and Juno.

Goddess of poetry, medicine, strategic warfare, commerce, weaving, the crafts, wisdom, courage, inspiration, victory, war, law, civilization, bravery, heroism, protection, city state, family, justice, mathematics, science, technology, strength, strategy, the arts, and skill
Member of the Capitoline Triad and the Dii Consentes
Fresco of Minerva (helmeted figure on right) from the Villa San Marco, Stabiae (1st century AD)
SymbolsOwl of Minerva, olive tree, serpent of Jupiter, the Parthenon, the spear, the spindle, and Hellebore
Greek equivalentAthena
Etruscan equivalentMenrva
Canaanite equivalentAnat[1]
Egyptian equivalentNeith
Celtic equivalentBrigantia
Mosaic of the Minerva of Peace in the Library of Congress

She was the virgin goddess of music, poetry, medicine, wisdom, commerce, weaving, and the crafts.[4] She is often depicted with her sacred creature, an owl usually named as the "owl of Minerva",[5] which symbolised her association with wisdom and knowledge as well as, less frequently, the snake and the olive tree. Minerva is commonly depicted as tall with an athletic and muscular build, as well as wearing armour and carrying a spear. As the most important Roman goddess, she is highly revered, honored, and respected.[6] Marcus Terentius Varro considered her to be ideas and the plan for the universe personified.[7]