Ministry of Public Security (China)
The Ministry of Public Security (Chinese: 公安部; pinyin: Gōng'ānbù) is the government ministry of the People's Republic of China responsible for public security. It oversees more than 1.9 million of the country's law enforcement officers and as such the vast majority of the People's Police (Chinese: 人民警察; pinyin: Rénmín Jǐngchá). While the Ministry of Public Security is generally concerned with regular policing, the Ministry of State Security is charged with domestic and foreign intelligence-gathering as well as combating espionage and subversion.
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Zhōnghuá Rénmín Gònghéguó Gōng'ānbù
Flag of the People's Police of China
|Type||Constituent Department of the State Council (cabinet-level)|
|Parent agency||State Council|
The ministry was established in 1949 (after the Chinese Communist Party's victory in the Chinese Civil War) and was known as "Ministry of Public Security of the Central People's Government" until 1954. Grand General Luo Ruiqing of the People's Liberation Army was its first minister. As the ministry's organization was based on Soviet and Eastern Bloc models, it was responsible for all aspects of national security; ranging from regular police work to intelligence, counter-intelligence and the suppression of anti-communist political and societal sentiments. Military intelligence affairs remained with the General Staff Department, while the International Liaison Department of the Chinese Communist Party was active in fomenting revolutionary tendencies worldwide by funneling weapons, money and resources to various pro-Chinese movements. With the creation of the MSS in 1983, the MPS lost the majority of its non-regular law enforcement responsibilities.
The MPS is generally comparable with a nationwide police force, such as the Japanese National Police Agency, Russian Ministry of Internal Affairs or the German Federal Police. The ministry employs a system of Public Security Bureaus throughout all provinces, cities, municipalities and towns of China; equivalent to local police forces or stations in most other countries. The special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macau maintain their own, autonomous bureaus, agencies and police forces. The ministry is headed by the Minister of Public Security, who is nominated by the Premier of the People's Republic of China and confirmed by the National People's Congress (NPC). Zhao Kezhi has been the current minister since November 2017.