Moldova

Moldova (/mɒlˈdvə/ (listen) mol-DOH-və, sometimes UK: /ˈmɒldəvə/ MOL-də-və;[14][15][16] Romanian pronunciation: [mɔːlˈdɔːva]), officially the Republic of Moldova (Romanian: Republica Moldova), is a country in Eastern Europe.[17] It is bordered by Romania to the west and Ukraine to the north, east, and south.[18] Ukraine and Moldova reached an agreement in 2005 ensuring Moldova's access to the Black Sea and ending its landlocked status. The unrecognised breakaway region of Transnistria lies across the Dniester on the country's eastern border with Ukraine. Moldova's capital and largest city is Chișinău.

Republic of Moldova
Republica Moldova  (Romanian)
Anthem: Limba noastră
"Our language"
Location of Moldova (red) in Europe
Capital
and largest city
Chișinău
47°0′N 28°55′E
Official languagesRomanian (also called Moldovan)[1][2]
Recognised minority
languages
[3][4][5]
Ethnic groups
(2014; excluding Transnistria)
75.1% Moldovan[lower-alpha 1]
7.0% Romanian
6.6% Ukrainian
4.6% Gagauz
4.1% Russian
1.9% Bulgarian
0.36% Romani
0.07% Poles
0.89% Other
Religion
(2014; excluding Transnistria)
91.8% Christianity
—90.1% Eastern Orthodoxy
—1.7% Other Christian
5.5% No religion
2.4% Unspecified
0.3% Other[6]
Demonym(s)Moldovan
GovernmentUnitary parliamentary republic
 President
Maia Sandu
Natalia Gavrilița
Igor Grosu
LegislatureParliament
Formation
1346
1812
15 December 1917
9 April 1918
12 October 1924
2 August 1940
27 August 1991b
2 March 1992
 Constitution adopted
29 July 1994
Area
 Including Transnistria
33,843.5[7] km2 (13,067.0 sq mi) (135th)
 Water (%)
1.4 (including Transnistria)
 Excluding Transnistria
30,334 km2 (11,712 sq mi) [lower-alpha 2]
Population
 1 January 2021 estimate
2,597,100 [9]
(excludes Transnistria) (138th)
 Density
85.5[10]/km2 (221.4/sq mi) (125th)
GDP (PPP)2021 estimate
 Total
$36.886 billion[11] (134th)
 Per capita
$14,257[11] (118th)
GDP (nominal)2021 estimate
 Total
$12.396 billion[11] (144th)
 Per capita
$4,791[11] (123rd)
Gini (2018) 25.7[12]
low
HDI (2019) 0.750[13]
high · 90th
CurrencyMoldovan leu (MDL)
Time zoneUTC+2 (EET)
 Summer (DST)
UTC+3 (EEST)
Driving sideright
Calling code+373
ISO 3166 codeMD
Internet TLD.md
  1. As determined by the Moldovan Declaration of Independence, which the Constitutional court of Moldova found to take precedence over Article 13 of the Constitution, which uses the name "Moldovan".[1]
  2. Date of proclamation. Independence subsequently finalized with the dissolution of the USSR in December 1991.

Most of Moldovan territory was a part of the Principality of Moldavia from the 14th century until 1812, when it was ceded to the Russian Empire by the Ottoman Empire (to which Moldavia was a vassal state) and became known as Bessarabia. In 1856, southern Bessarabia was returned to Moldavia, which three years later united with Wallachia to form Romania, but Russian rule was restored over the whole of the region in 1878. During the 1917 Russian Revolution, Bessarabia briefly became an autonomous state within the Russian Republic, known as the Moldavian Democratic Republic. In February 1918, the Moldavian Democratic Republic declared independence and then integrated into Romania later that year following a vote of its assembly. The decision was disputed by Soviet Russia, which in 1924 established, within the Ukrainian SSR, a Moldavian autonomous republic (MASSR) on partially Moldovan-inhabited territories to the east of Bessarabia.

In 1940, as a consequence of the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, Romania was compelled to cede Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina to the Soviet Union, leading to the creation of the Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic (Moldavian SSR), which included the greater part of Bessarabia and the westernmost strip of the former MASSR (east of the Dniester River). On 27 August 1991, as the dissolution of the Soviet Union was underway, the Moldavian SSR declared independence and took the name Moldova.[19] The constitution of Moldova was adopted in 1994. The strip of the Moldovan territory on the east bank of the Dniester has been under the de facto control of the breakaway government of Transnistria since 1990.

Due to a decrease in industrial and agricultural output following the dissolution of the Soviet Union, the service sector has grown to dominate Moldova's economy and is over 60% of the nation's GDP. It is the second poorest country in Europe by GDP per capita, after Ukraine.[20] Moldova has the lowest Human Development Index in the continent, ranking 90th in the world.

Moldova is a parliamentary republic with a president as head of state and a prime minister as head of government. It is a member state of the United Nations, the Council of Europe, the World Trade Organization (WTO), the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE), the GUAM Organization for Democracy and Economic Development, the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Organization of the Black Sea Economic Cooperation (BSEC), and the Association Trio.


Share this article:

This article uses material from the Wikipedia article Moldova, and is written by contributors. Text is available under a CC BY-SA 4.0 International License; additional terms may apply. Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.