Montenegro

Montenegro (/ˌmɒntɪˈnɡr, -ˈnɡr, -ˈnɛɡr/ (listen);[8] Montenegrin: Crna Gora,[lower-alpha 1] Црна Гора,[lower-alpha 2] lit.'Black Mountain')[9][10] is a country in Southeastern Europe.[11] It is located on the Adriatic Sea and is a part of the Balkans, sharing borders with Serbia to the northeast, Bosnia and Herzegovina to the north and west, Kosovo to the east, Albania to the southeast, the Adriatic Sea and Croatia to the southwest, and a maritime boundary with Italy.[12] Podgorica, the capital and largest city, covers 10.4% of Montenegro's territory of 13,812 square kilometres (5,333 sq mi), and is home to roughly 30% of its total population of 621,000.[13]

Montenegro
Crna Gora  (Montenegrin)
Црна Гора  (Montenegrin)
Mali i Zi  (Albanian)
Anthem: 
Oj, svijetla majska zoro
Ој, свијетла мајска зоро
(English: "Oh, Bright Dawn of May")
Location of Montenegro (green)

in Europe (dark grey)   [Legend]

Capital
and largest city
Podgorica
42°47′N 19°28′E
Official languagesMontenegrin[1]
Languages in official use
Ethnic groups
(2011[3])
Religion
(2011)
Demonym(s)Montenegrin
GovernmentUnitary parliamentary republic
 President
Milo Đukanović
Dritan Abazović
 Speaker
Danijela Đurović
LegislatureSkupština
Establishment history
625
1077
1356
1516
1852
1878
1910
1918
1945
1992
2006
Area
 Total
13,812 km2 (5,333 sq mi) (156th)
 Water (%)
2.6
Population
 2021 estimate
620,739[4] (169th)
 Density
45/km2 (116.5/sq mi) (133rd)
GDP (PPP)2020 estimate
 Total
$11.994 billion[5] (149th)
 Per capita
$19,252[5] (63rd)
GDP (nominal)2020 estimate
 Total
$4.790 billion[5] (153rd)
 Per capita
$7,688[5] (73rd)
Gini (2019) 34.1[6]
medium
HDI (2019) 0.829[7]
very high · 48th
CurrencyEuro ()a (EUR)
Time zoneUTC+1 (CET)
 Summer (DST)
UTC+2 (CEST)
Date formatdd.mm.yyyy.
Driving sideright
Calling code+382
ISO 3166 codeME
Internet TLD.me
  1. Adopted unilaterally; Montenegro is not a member of the Eurozone.

During the Early Medieval period, three principalities were located on the territory of modern-day Montenegro: Duklja, roughly corresponding to the southern half; Travunia, the west; and Rascia proper, the north.[14][15][16] The Principality of Zeta emerged in the 14th and 15th centuries. From the late 14th century to the late 18th century, large parts of southern Montenegro were ruled by the Venetian Republic and incorporated into Venetian Albania.[17] The name Montenegro was first used to refer to the country in the late 15th century. After falling under Ottoman rule, Montenegro regained its independence in 1696 under the rule of the House of Petrović-Njegoš, first as a theocracy and later as a secular principality. Montenegro's independence was recognised by the Great Powers at the Congress of Berlin in 1878. In 1910, the country became a kingdom.

After World War I, the kingdom became part of Yugoslavia. Following the breakup of Yugoslavia, the republics of Serbia and Montenegro together proclaimed a federation. Following an independence referendum held in May 2006, Montenegro declared its independence and the confederation dissolved.[18]

Montenegro has an upper-middle-income economy[19] and ranks 48th in the Human Development Index.[20] It is a member of the United Nations, NATO, the World Trade Organization, the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the Council of Europe, and the Central European Free Trade Agreement.[21] Montenegro is also a founding member of the Union for the Mediterranean,[22] and is currently in the process of joining the European Union.[23]


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