Montreal (// (listen) MUN-tree-AWL or /-/ MON-; officially Montréal, French: [mɔ̃ʁeal] (listen)) is the second-most populous city in Canada and most populous city in the Canadian province of Quebec. Founded in 1642 as Ville-Marie, or "City of Mary", it is named after Mount Royal, the triple-peaked hill around which the early city of Ville-Marie is built. The city is centred on the Island of Montreal, which obtained its name from the same origin as the city, and a few much smaller peripheral islands, the largest of which is Île Bizard. The city is 196 km (122 mi) east of the national capital Ottawa, and 258 km (160 mi) southwest of the provincial capital, Quebec City.
|Ville de Montréal|
Concordia Salus ("well-being through harmony")
|Founded||May 17, 1642|
|Constituted||January 1, 2002|
|• Type||Montreal City Council|
|• Mayor||Valérie Plante|
|• Federal riding|
|• Provincial riding|
|• City||431.50 km2 (166.60 sq mi)|
|• Land||365.13 km2 (140.98 sq mi)|
|• Urban||1,293.99 km2 (499.61 sq mi)|
|• Metro||4,604.26 km2 (1,777.71 sq mi)|
|Highest elevation||233 m (764 ft)|
|Lowest elevation||6 m (20 ft)|
|• City||1,762,949 (2nd)|
|• Density||4,828.3/km2 (12,505/sq mi)|
|• Metro||4,291,732 (2nd)|
|• Metro density||919/km2 (2,380/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC−05:00 (EST)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC−04:00 (EDT)|
|Area code(s)||514 and 438 and 263|
|GDP (Montreal CMA)||$200.9 billion (2016)|
|GDP per capita (Montreal CMA)||CA$49,024 (2016)|
As of 2021, the city had a population of 1,762,949, and a metropolitan population of 4,291,732, making it the second-largest city, and second-largest metropolitan area in Canada. French is the city's official language. In 2021, it was spoken at home by 59.1% of the population and 69.2% in the Montreal Census Metropolitan Area. Overall, 85.7% of the population of the city of Montreal considered themselves fluent in French while 90.2% could speak it in the metropolitan area. Montreal is one of the most bilingual cities in Quebec and Canada, with 58.5% of the population able to speak both English and French.
Historically the commercial capital of Canada, Montreal was surpassed in population and in economic strength by Toronto in the 1970s. It remains an important centre of commerce, aerospace, transport, finance, pharmaceuticals, technology, design, education, art, culture, tourism, food, fashion, video game development, film, and world affairs. Montreal is the location of the headquarters of the International Civil Aviation Organization, and was named a UNESCO City of Design in 2006. In 2017, Montreal was ranked the 12th-most liveable city in the world by the Economist Intelligence Unit in its annual Global Liveability Ranking, although it slipped to rank 40 in the 2021 index, primarily due to stress on the healthcare system from the COVID-19 pandemic. It is regularly ranked as a top ten city in the world to be a university student in the QS World University Rankings.
Montreal has hosted multiple international conferences and events, including the 1967 International and Universal Exposition and the 1976 Summer Olympics. It is the only Canadian city to have held the Summer Olympics. In 2018, Montreal was ranked as a global city. The city hosts the Canadian Grand Prix of Formula One; the Montreal International Jazz Festival, the largest jazz festival in the world; the Just for Laughs festival, the largest comedy festival in the world; and Les Francos de Montréal, the largest French-language music festival in the world. It is also home to the Montreal Canadiens of the National Hockey League, who have won the Stanley Cup more times than any other team.