Moses[note 1] (/ˈmzɪz, -zɪs/)[2] is considered the most important prophet in Judaism[3][4] and one of the most important prophets in Christianity, Islam, the Druze faith,[5][6] the Baháʼí Faith, and other Abrahamic religions. According to both the Bible and the Quran,[7] Moses was the leader of the Israelites and lawgiver to whom the authorship, or "acquisition from heaven", of the Torah (the first five books of the Bible) is attributed.[8]

Moses with the Tablets of the Law (1624), by Guido Reni
SpouseZipporah/Cushite woman [he][1]
Known forProphet
Delivering the Ten Commandments to the Israelites

According to the Book of Exodus, Moses was born in a time when his people, the Israelites, an enslaved minority, were increasing in population and, as a result, the Egyptian Pharaoh worried that they might ally themselves with Egypt's enemies.[9] Moses' Hebrew mother, Jochebed, secretly hid him when Pharaoh ordered all newborn Hebrew boys to be killed in order to reduce the population of the Israelites. Through Pharaoh's daughter (identified as Queen Bithia in the Midrash), the child was adopted as a foundling from the Nile and grew up with the Egyptian royal family. After killing an Egyptian slave-master who was beating a Hebrew, Moses fled across the Red Sea to Midian, where he encountered the Angel of the Lord,[10] speaking to him from within a burning bush on Mount Horeb, which he regarded as the Mountain of God.

God sent Moses back to Egypt to demand the release of the Israelites from slavery. Moses said that he could not speak eloquently,[11] so God allowed Aaron, his elder brother,[12] to become his spokesperson. After the Ten Plagues, Moses led the Exodus of the Israelites out of Egypt and across the Red Sea, after which they based themselves at Mount Sinai, where Moses received the Ten Commandments. After 40 years of wandering in the desert, Moses died on Mount Nebo at the age of 120, within sight of the Promised Land.[13]

Generally, the majority of scholars see the biblical Moses as a legendary figure, whilst retaining the possibility that Moses or a Moses-like figure existed in the 13th century BCE.[14][15][16][17][18] Rabbinical Judaism calculated a lifespan of Moses corresponding to 1391–1271 BCE;[19] Jerome suggested 1592 BCE,[20] and James Ussher suggested 1571 BCE as his birth year.[21][note 2]

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