Mountainous Republic of the Northern Caucasus


The Mountainous Republic of the Northern Caucasus (MRNC; also known as the United Republics of the North Caucasus, Mountain Republic or the Republic of the Mountaineers) was a country in the North Caucasus formed by the unification of Circassians, Chechens, Ingush, Ossetians and Dagestanis proclaimed at the congress of the North Caucasian peoples on 6 March 1917. It existed from 1917 until 1922.

The Mountainous Republic
of the Northern Caucasus

1917–1922
Flag
Coat of arms
CapitalTemir-Khan-Shura (now Buynaksk)
Common languagesRussian · and local national languages such as Abkhaz · Ingush · Kabardian (East Circassian) · Karachai-Balkar · Kumyk · Nogai · Ossetic · Chechen · and other Dagestani and Caucasus languages

Languages of Higher Education - Russian, Arabic, Turkic[1]
Religion
Islam (Majority and state-backed faith)
Russian Orthodox Church (Minority)
Demonym(s)North Caucasian
GovernmentFederal republic
LegislatureParliamentary
Establishment
Historical eraWorld War I · Interwar period
 Constitution
1847
 Unification of North Caucasus
1828
 Independence declared
6 March 1917
30 November 1922
Area
 Total
415,265 km2 (160,335 sq mi)
Population
 1919 census
11 221 860[2]
CurrencyTumen
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Russian Empire
Mountain Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic

MRNC included most of the territory of the former Terek Oblast and Dagestan Oblast of the Russian Empire, which now form the republics of Chechnya, Ingushetia, North Ossetia–Alania, Kabardino-Balkaria, Dagestan, Abkhazia and part of Stavropol Krai of the Russian Federation. The total land area was about 415,265 square kilometers (160,335 sq mi), with a population of about 11 million. Its capital was initially at Vladikavkaz, then Nazran, and finally Temir-Khan-Shura.

It broke away from the Russian Empire during the February Revolution, shortly before the start of the Russian Civil War. The state was captured by Soviet Russian forces in 1921, who transformed it into the Mountain Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic.[3]

State formation


The Union included seven "states" allocated on a national basis and united according to a confederative principle in the territories: Dagestan, Ingushetia, Chechnya, Ossetia, Circassia (Including West Circassia but the union only had control over East Circassia), the Nogai steppes and also claims in Abkhazia, although the union never had direct control over the Abkhazian land.[4][5][6]

The Cabinet of Ministers of the Mountain Republic included representatives from almost all regions of the North Caucasus.

History


Leaders of the MRNC, with Prime Minister Tapa Tchermoeff seated in the front row centre
General Anton Denikin's Volunteer Army and regional armed forces after the Armistice of Mudros

The Union of the Peoples of the Northern Caucasus was created in March 1917, and an Executive Committee of the Union was elected. The Chairman of the Executive Committee was one of the leaders of the National‐Liberation movement of the Peoples of the Northern Caucasus, Tapa Tchermoeff.

The 1847 "Nizam" (constitution) of Imam Shamil was re-adopted on 5 August 1917 by the Central Committee of the Northern Caucasus.[citation needed]

The independent republic was officially proclaimed on 11 May 1918, after the collapse of the Russian Tsarist empire in the Russian revolution of 1917. The government of the new republic was established. Prime Minister Tapa Tchermoeff, Rashid-khan Kaplanov and Haidar Bammate.[1] The Republic's capital was Vladikazkav, later moved to Temir-Khan-Shura.[1] At some point republic was supported by Said Shamil (grandson of Imam Shamil).

The Mountainous Republic was de jure recognized by the Ottoman Empire, Germany, the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic, Armenia, the Democratic Republic of Georgia, Ukraine, Bulgaria, Belarus, Latvia, Estonia, France, Finland, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, United States, Italy, Austria-Hungary, Poland, Don Republic, Japan, and the Kuban People's Republic.

During the Russian Civil War, MRNC soldiers engaged in fierce clashes against the invading White troops of General Anton Denikin's Volunteer Army. The fighting ended in January 1920, when Denikin's army was completely defeated by the 11th Red Army. The advancing Red Army was at first greeted with red flags in the villages of the Northern Caucasus, but the promises of autonomous rule made by the Bolsheviks went unrealized.

In January 1921, the MRNC was occupied by the Red Army of Bolshevik Russia and the government of the republic was forced to leave the Caucasus. In January 1921, the Soviet Mountain Republic of the Russian SFSR was established.

Some government members 1917–1919


See also


Notes


  1. М. Вачагаев: Союз горцев Северного Кавказа и Горская республика, 2018
  2. L'Europe orientale (Paris. 1919), N2
  3. World, Abkhaz. "Abkhazia, Georgia and the Caucasus Confederation, by Stanislav Lakoba". Abkhaz World | History, Culture & Politics of Abkhazia. Retrieved 2020-03-08.
  4. «После Февральской революции 1917 г. процесс политического самоопределения привел к образованию Карачаево-Балкарского штата в составе горской республики.» (ИЭА Российской академии наук. Серия энциклопедий «Народы и культуры», «Карачаевцы. Балкарцы.» — М.: Наука, ИЭА РАН, 2014. — С. 7. — 815 с. ISBN 978-5-02-038043-1.)
  5. Петр Михайлович Шаститко (2002). Обречённые догмы: большевизм и национальный вопрос. М.: Восточная литература. p. 44. ISBN 9785020183056.
  6. Камалудин Гаджиев (2013). Кавказский узел в геополитических приоритетах России. Litres. ISBN 9785457145672.
  7. Журнал «Ахульго, Журнал №6, Он служил своему народу.
  8. "Гайдаров Ибрагим-бек Исаббекович". www.hrono.ru. Retrieved 2021-02-03.
  9. http://www.gazavat.ru/personalies2.php?people=109
  10. https://ndelo.ru/detail/cennyj-dokument
  11. "Подвигами предков соткана наша история". Ёлдаш (in Russian). Retrieved 2021-03-19.
  12. Михаил Булгаков. Фотолетопись жизни и творчества / Юрий Кривоносов. — М. : Вече, 2017. — 480 с.
  13. Первые государственные образования на Северном Кавказе, (май 1917 – март 1920 гг.), Какагасанов Г. И., Матиев Т. Х., Болдырев Ю.Ф., Назарова О. В., Вестник Ингушского научно-исследовательского института гуманитарных наук им. Ч.Э. Ахриева, 2019

Bibliography


  • "Caucasian Republic Mission to the Peace Conference Appeal for Help", The Morning Post, London, Friday 4 April 1919.
  • J. "Obedinennyi Kavkaz" ("Vereinigtes Kaukasien"), 1–3 (30–32), München, 1954. (in Russian)
  • Baddeley, J. F., 1908, The Russian Conquest of the Caucasus, Longmans, Green, and Co., London
  • Madeleine Henrey, Madeleine Grown Up, J. M. Dent & Sons, London, 1954.
  • Kathleen R. Jackson, Marat Fidarov, Essays on the History of the North Caucasus, HHN Media, New York, 2009.
  • Marshall, Alex (2010), The Caucasus Under Soviet Rule, New York City: Routledge
  • Saparov, Arsène (2015), From Conflict to Autonomy in the Caucasus: The Soviet Union and the making of Abkhazia, South Ossetia and Nagorno Karabakh, New York City: Routledge
  • Storozhenko (ed.), Ingushetia and Chechen Republic Map, Northern Caucasian Aerogeodesic Company of Roskartografia, Russia, 1995.
  • Levan Z. Urushadze, "About the history of the question of unity of the Caucasian Peoples". J. "Amirani", XIII, Montreal‐Tbilisi, 2005, pp. 72–87.
  • «Союз горцев Северного Кавказа и Горская республика. История несостоявшегося государства. 1917-1920», М.М. Вачагаев, 2018