Muscle contraction

Muscle contraction is the activation of tension-generating sites within muscle cells.[1][2] In physiology, muscle contraction does not necessarily mean muscle shortening because muscle tension can be produced without changes in muscle length, such as when holding something heavy in the same position.[1] The termination of muscle contraction is followed by muscle relaxation, which is a return of the muscle fibers to their low tension-generating state.[1]

Top-down view of skeletal muscle
Hierarchical organization of skeletal muscle
Frog jumping
Contractions of skeletal muscles allow vertebrate animals such as frogs to move

For the contractions to happen, the muscle cells must rely on the interaction of two types of filaments which are the thin and thick filaments. Thin filaments are two strands of actin coiled around each, and thick filaments consist of mostly elongated proteins called myosin. Together, these two filaments form myofibrils which are important organelles in the skeletal muscle system. Muscle contraction can also be described based on two variables: length and tension.[1] A muscle contraction is described as isometric if the muscle tension changes but the muscle length remains the same.[1][3][4][5] In contrast, a muscle contraction is isotonic if muscle tension remains the same throughout the contraction.[1][3][4][5] If the muscle length shortens, the contraction is concentric;[1][6] if the muscle length lengthens, the contraction is eccentric. In natural movements that underlie locomotor activity, muscle contractions are multifaceted as they are able to produce changes in length and tension in a time-varying manner.[7] Therefore, neither length nor tension is likely to remain the same in skeletal muscles that contract during locomotor activity.

In vertebrates, skeletal muscle contractions are neurogenic as they require synaptic input from motor neurons. A single motor neuron is able to innervate multiple muscle fibers, thereby causing the fibers to contract at the same time. Once innervated, the protein filaments within each skeletal muscle fiber slide past each other to produce a contraction, which is explained by the sliding filament theory. The contraction produced can be described as a twitch, summation, or tetanus, depending on the frequency of action potentials. In skeletal muscles, muscle tension is at its greatest when the muscle is stretched to an intermediate length as described by the length-tension relationship.

Unlike skeletal muscle, the contractions of smooth and cardiac muscles are myogenic (meaning that they are initiated by the smooth or heart muscle cells themselves instead of being stimulated by an outside event such as nerve stimulation), although they can be modulated by stimuli from the autonomic nervous system. The mechanisms of contraction in these muscle tissues are similar to those in skeletal muscle tissues.

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