Nanjing (/nænˈɪŋ/;[5] Chinese: 南京; pinyin: Nánjīng, Mandarin pronunciation: [nǎn.tɕíŋ] (listen)), alternately romanized as Nanking,[6] is the capital of Jiangsu province of the People's Republic of China, a sub-provincial city, a megacity and the second largest city in the East China region.[lower-alpha 2] With 11 districts, Nanjing, which is located in southwestern Jiangsu, has an administrative area of 6,600 km2 (2,500 sq mi) and a total population of 9,314,685 as of 2020.[7]

Nanking, Nan-ching
Location of Nanjing City jurisdiction in Jiangsu
Location in China
Nanjing (China)
Coordinates (Jiangsu People's Government): 32°03′41″N 118°45′49″E
Settledunknown (Yecheng, 495 BCE. Jinling City, 333 BCE)
Municipal seatXuanwu District
  TypeSub-provincial city
  BodyNanjing Municipal People's Congress
  CCP SecretaryHan Liming
  Congress ChairmanLong Xiang
  MayorHan Liming
  CPPCC ChairmanLiu Yi'an
  Prefecture-level & Sub-provincial city6,587 km2 (2,543 sq mi)
1,398.69 km2 (540.04 sq mi)
20 m (50 ft)
  Prefecture-level & Sub-provincial city9,314,685
  Density1,237/km2 (3,183/sq mi)
  Metro11.7 million
Demonym(s)Nankinese or Nanjinger[lower-alpha 1]
Time zoneUTC+08:00 (China Standard)
Postal code
Area code(s)25
ISO 3166 codeCN-JS-01
GDP (Nominal)2020
 - Total¥1.48 trillion
$214.7 billion
 - Per capita¥159,082
 - Growth 4.6%
GDP (PPP)2017
 - TotalUS$ 334.1 billion
 - Per capitaUS$40,084
Human Development Index0.859 (very high)
WebsiteCity of Nanjing
City trees
Deodar Cedar (Cedrus deodara),
Platanus × acerifolia[4]
City flowers
Méi (Prunus mume)
"Nanjing" in Chinese characters
Literal meaning"Southern Capital"

Situated in the Yangtze River Delta region, Nanjing has a prominent place in Chinese history and culture, having served as the capital of various Chinese dynasties, kingdoms and republican governments dating from the 3rd century to 1949,[8] and has thus long been a major center of culture, education, research, politics, economy, transport networks and tourism, being the home to one of the world's largest inland ports. The city is also one of the fifteen sub-provincial cities in the People's Republic of China's administrative structure,[9] enjoying jurisdictional and economic autonomy only slightly less than that of a province.[10] Nanjing has been ranked seventh in the evaluation of "Cities with Strongest Comprehensive Strength" issued by the National Statistics Bureau, and second in the evaluation of cities with most sustainable development potential in the Yangtze River Delta. It has also been awarded the title of 2008 Habitat Scroll of Honor of China, Special UN Habitat Scroll of Honor Award and National Civilized City.[11] Nanjing is also considered a Global City with a "Beta" classification, together with Chongqing, Hangzhou and Tianjin according to GaWC,[12] and ranked as one of the world's top 100 cities in the Global Financial Centres Index.[13]

Nanjing has many high-quality universities and research institutes, with the number of universities listed in 100 National Key Universities ranking third, including Nanjing University which has a long history and is among the world top 10 universities ranked by Nature Index.[14] The ratio of college students to total population ranks No.1 among large cities nationwide. Nanjing has the eighth-largest scientific research output of any city in the world and has been regarded as one of the world's top three scientific research centers in chemistry (behind Beijing and Shanghai), according to the Nature Index.[15][16][17]

Nanjing, one of the nation's most important cities for over a thousand years, is recognized as one of the Four Great Ancient Capitals of China. It has been one of the world's largest cities, enjoying peace and prosperity despite wars and disasters.[18][19][20][21] Nanjing served as the capital of Eastern Wu (229–280), one of the three major states in the Three Kingdoms period; the Eastern Jin and each of the Southern dynasties (Liu Song, Southern Qi, Liang and Chen), which successively ruled southern China from 317 to 589; the Southern Tang (937–75), one of the Ten Kingdoms; the Ming dynasty when, for the first time, all of China was ruled from the city (1368–1421);[22] and the Republic of China under the nationalist Kuomintang (1927–37, 1946–49) prior to its flight to Taiwan by Chiang Kai-Shek during the Chinese Civil War.[23] The city also served as the seat of the rebel Taiping Heavenly Kingdom (1853–64) and the Japanese puppet regime of Wang Jingwei (1940–45) during the Second Sino-Japanese War. It suffered severe atrocities in both conflicts, such as the Nanjing massacre.

Nanjing has served as the capital city of Jiangsu province since the establishment of the People's Republic of China. It has many important heritage sites, including the Presidential Palace and Sun Yat-sen Mausoleum. Nanjing is famous for human historical landscapes, mountains and waters such as Fuzimiao, Ming Palace, Chaotian Palace, Porcelain Tower, Drum Tower, Stone City, City Wall, Qinhuai River, Xuanwu Lake and Purple Mountain. Key cultural facilities include Nanjing Library, Nanjing Museum and Jiangsu Art Museum.