National Bolshevism

National Bolshevism (Russian: Национал-большевизм, German: Nationalbolschewismus), whose supporters are known as National Bolsheviks (Russian: Национал-большевики) or NazBols (Russian: Нацболы),[1] is a radical political movement that combines ultranationalism and communism.[2][3]

Members of the Russian National Bolshevik Party in 2006
Flag of the National Bolshevik Party

Notable historical proponents of National Bolshevism in Germany included Ernst Niekisch (1889–1967), Heinrich Laufenberg (1872–1932), and Karl Otto Paetel (1906–1975). In Russia, Nikolay Ustryalov (1890–1937) and his followers, the Smenovekhovtsy, used the term.

Notable modern advocates of the movement include Aleksandr Dugin and Eduard Limonov, who led the unregistered and banned National Bolshevik Party (NBP) in the Russian Federation.[4]