National identity cards in the European Economic Area


National identity cards are issued to their citizens by the governments of all European Economic Area (EEA) member states except Denmark, Iceland and Ireland. Ireland however issues a passport card which is valid as a national identity card in the EEA and Switzerland.[1] Denmark and Iceland issues simpler identity cards that are not valid as travel documents.[2][3] The various identity card styles currently in use in the EEA are intended to be harmonised and replaced by the European identity card from 2 August 2021.[lower-alpha 1][4][5][6][7]

National identity card
Polish version of a national identity card
Issued by Member states of the European Economic Area and Switzerland.

Citizens holding a national identity card, which states citizenship of an EEA member state or Switzerland, can use it as an identity document within their home country, and as a travel document to exercise the right of free movement in the EEA and Switzerland.[8][9][10] However, identity cards that do not state citizenship of an EEA member state or Switzerland, including national identity cards issued to residents who are not citizens, are not valid as travel documents within the EEA and Switzerland.[11][12][13]

Use


National identity cards issued to EEA or Swiss citizens can be used to exercise the right of free movement in the same countries:
  Member states of the EU
  EFTA members part of the EEA
  EFTA member Switzerland which is not part of the EEA

Travel document

As an alternative to presenting a passport, EEA and Swiss citizens are entitled to use a valid national identity card as a stand-alone travel document to exercise their right of free movement in the European Economic Area and Switzerland.[8][9][10] National identity card ownership in most EU countries and Switzerland is much more widespread than passport ownership.[14]

When travelling within the Nordic Passport Union, no identity documentation is legally required by Nordic citizens. When travelling within the Common Travel Area, other valid identity documentation (such as a driving licence) is often sufficient for Irish and British citizens.[15]

At present, Denmark and Iceland do not issue identity cards that are valid as travel documents in the EEA member states and Switzerland.[16] Strictly speaking, it is not necessary for an EEA or Swiss citizen to possess a valid national identity card or passport to enter the EEA and Switzerland. In theory, if an EEA or Swiss citizen can prove their nationality by any other means (e.g. by presenting an expired national identity card or passport, or a citizenship certificate), they must be permitted to enter the EEA and Switzerland. An EEA or Swiss citizen who is unable to demonstrate their nationality satisfactorily must, nonetheless, be given 'every reasonable opportunity' to obtain the necessary documents or to have them delivered within a reasonable period of time.[17][18][19][20][21]

Additionally, EEA and Swiss citizens can enter the following countries and territories outside the EEA and Switzerland on the strength of their national identity cards alone, without the need to present a passport to the border authorities:

  • 1. Monaco is de facto part of the Schengen Area under an arrangement with France, while San Marino and Vatican City are enclaves of Italy with open land borders. For further information, see: Schengen Area § Status of the European microstates.
  • 2. Only machine-readable ID cards.
  • 3. Only for EU and Swiss citizens.[37][38]
  • 4. Open border with the Schengen Are due to open borders with the Nordic countries (Nordic Passport Union). Citizens of Schengen countries can use a national ID card, while Nordic citizens can use any acceptable identification.
  • 5. National ID cards are valid until 30 September 2021 for tourism and until at least 31 December 2025 for specific reasons.[39][40][41][42]
  • 6. National ID cards only accepted for short-term visits, and passport are required to take up residency

Turkey allows citizens of Belgium, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, and Switzerland to enter for short-term visits using a national identity card.[43] Egypt allows citizens of Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, and Portugal to enter using a national identity card for short-term visits.[44][45] Tunisia allows nationals of Austria, Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, and Switzerland to enter using a national identity card if travelling on an organized tour. Anguilla, Dominica, and Saint Lucia allow nationals of France to enter using a national ID card, while Dominica de facto also allows nationals of (at least) Germany and Sweden to enter with a national ID card (as of March 2016). Gambia allows nationals of Belgium to enter using a national ID card.[46]

Although, as a matter of European law, holders of a Swedish national identity card are entitled to use it as a travel document to any European Union member state (regardless of whether it belongs to the Schengen Area or not), Swedish national law did not recognise the card as a valid travel document outside the Schengen Area until July 2015[47] in direct violation of European law. What this meant in practice was that leaving Schengen directly from Sweden (i.e., without making a stopover in another Schengen country) with the card was not possible. This partially changed in July 2015, when travel to non-Schengen countries in the EU (but not outside, even if the destination country accepts the ID card) was permitted.[48] Sweden continues to allow travel to the United Kingdom during the Brexit transition period).[49][50]

Similarly, Finnish citizens cannot leave Finland directly for a non-EU/EFTA country with only their ID cards.[51]

Additional checks for some citizens

At the external border crossing points of the Schengen Area, if a traveller presents a travel document without a machine readable zone and the border guard has 'doubt about his/her identity', the traveller may be requested to undergo a more in-depth 'second line' check.[18] In practice, this means that Greek citizens who present a Greek identity card and Italian citizens who present an Italian paper identity card could be subject to additional checks and delay when entering/leaving the Schengen Area.[52]

With effect from 7 April 2017, it is mandatory for border guards in the Schengen Area to check on a systematic basis the travel documents of all EEA and Swiss citizens crossing external borders against relevant databases.[53] Until 7 April 2017, border guards in the Schengen Area were only obliged to perform a 'rapid' and 'straightforward' visual check for signs of falsification and tampering, and were not obliged to use technical devices – such as document scanners, UV light and magnifiers – when EEA and Swiss citizens presented their passports or national identity cards at external border checkpoints.[54] They were not legally obliged to check the passports/national identity cards of EEA and Swiss citizens against a database of lost/stolen/invalidated travel documents (and, if they did so, they could only perform a 'rapid' and 'straightforward' database check, and could only check to see if the traveller was on a database containing persons of interest on a strictly 'non-systematic' basis where such a threat was 'genuine', 'present' and 'sufficiently serious').[54]

According to statistics published by Frontex, in 2015 the top 6 EU member states whose national identity cards were falsified and detected at external border crossing points of the Schengen Area were Italy, Spain, Belgium, Greece, France and Romania.[55] These countries remained the top 6 in 2016.[56]

Usage in third countries

UK Border Force (UKBF) officers have been known to place extra scrutiny on and to spend longer processing national identity cards issued by certain member states which are deemed to have limited security features and hence more susceptible to tampering/forgery. As a matter of policy, UKBF officers are required to examine physically all passports and national identity cards presented by EEA and Swiss citizens for signs of forgery and tampering.[57] Moreover, as a matter of policy, UKBF officers are required to check every EEA and Swiss citizen and their passport/national identity card against the Warnings Index (WI) database.[57]

For these reasons, when presented with a non-machine readable identity card, it can take up to four times longer for a UKBF officer to process the card as the officer has to enter the biographical details of the holder manually into the computer to check against the WI database and, if a large number of possible matches is returned, a different configuration has to be entered to reduce the number of possible matches.[58]

For example, at Stansted Airport, UKBF officers have been known to take longer to process Italian paper identity cardsbecause they often need to be taken out of plastic wallets,[59] because they are particularly susceptible to forgery/tampering[60] and because, as non-machine readable documents, the holders' biographical details have to be entered manually into the computer.[59] UKBF officers at the juxtaposed controls have been known to take longer to verify Romanian identity cards.[61]

According to the European Commission, some holders of Italian paper identity cards have been told by UKBF officers at Heathrow Airport that their ID card was 'just a piece of paper' and were advised to apply for a passport to use the next time that they enter the UK. Thus, they were 'confronted with obstacles to their free movement'.[62]

As of 20 May 2019, the UK Border Force advises EU/EEA/Swiss citizens to use some passport instead of their national identity card at the UK border because 'passports are faster for our Border Force officers to process' and 'you can use your EU passport at our eGates'.[63]

Identification document

Identity documentation requirements for citizens
Usage in own country

There are varying rules on domestic usage of identity documents. Some countries demand the usage of the national identity card or a passport. Other countries allow usage of other documents like driver's licences.

In some countries, e.g. Austria, Finland and Sweden, national identity cards are fully voluntary and not needed by everyone, as identity documents like driving licences are accepted domestically. In these countries only a minority have a national identity card, since a majority have a passport and a driving licence and don't need more identity documents. This is also true for Ireland where those who have a passport and a driving licence have less need for the passport card.

Usage outside own country

EEA and Swiss citizens exercising their right of free movement in another EEA member state or Switzerland are entitled to use their national identity card as an identification document when dealing not just with government authorities, but also with private sector service providers. For example, where a supermarket in The Netherlands refuses to accept a German national identity card as proof of age when a German citizen attempts to purchase an age-restricted product and insists on the production of a Dutch-issued passport or driving licence or other identity document, the supermarket would, in effect, be discriminating against this individual on this basis of his/her nationality in the provision of a service, thereby contravening the prohibition in Art 20(2) of Directive 2006/123/EC of discriminatory treatment relating to the nationality of a service recipient in the conditions of access to a service which are made available to the public at large by a service provider.[64]

Usage in third countries

National identity cards are often accepted in other parts of the world for unofficial identification purposes (such as age verification in commercial establishments that serve or sell alcohol, or checking in at hotels) and sometimes for official purposes such as proof of identity/nationality to authorities (especially machine-readable cards).

On 11 June 2014, The Guardian published leaked internal documents from HM Passport Office in the UK which revealed that government officials who dealt with British passport applications sent from overseas treated EU citizen counter-signatories differently depending on their nationality. The leaked internal documents showed that for citizens of Austria, Belgium, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Finland, Germany, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia, Slovenia and Sweden who acted as a counter-signatory to support the application for a British passport made by someone whom they knew, HM Passport Office would be willing to accept a copy of the counter-signatory's passport or the national identity card.[65] HM Passport Office considered that national identity cards issued to citizens of these member states were acceptable taking into account the 'quality of the identity card design, the rigour of their issuing process, the relatively low level of documented abuse of such documents at UK/Schengen borders and our ability to access samples of such identity cards for comparison purposes'. In contrast, citizens of other EU member states (Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, France, Greece, Italy, Romania and Spain) acting as counter-signatories could only submit a copy of their passport and not their national identity card to prove their identity as national identity cards issued by these member states were deemed by HM Passport Office to be less secure and more susceptible to fraud/forgery. The day following the revelations, on 12 June 2014, the Home Office and HM Passport Office withdrew the leaked internal guidance relating to EU citizen counter-signatories submitting a copy of their national identity card instead of their passport as proof of identity, and all EU citizen counter-signatories are now able only to submit a copy of their passport and not of their national identity card.[66][67]

In the UK, by law EU, EEA and Swiss citizens have an 'unlimited right to rent'.[68] However, landlords are legally obliged to check the immigration status of all prospective tenants before the start of a residential tenancy agreement (commonly known as a 'right to rent check').[69] According to the Right to Rent Document Checks User Guide issued by the Home Office, EU, EEA and Swiss citizens are entitled to produce a national identity card (current or expired) to satisfy this requirement. At the time, however, if the national identity card is not in English, the Home Office advises landlords that 'If in doubt, you can ask the tenant to provide other documents from the list in English. If you are not satisfied that they have the right to rent, you should not rent to them.'[70] In practice, this would affect some EU, EEA and Swiss citizens, as a number of member states (for example, France and Spain) issue national identity cards that do not contain English.

Common design and security features


On 13 July 2005, the Justice and Home Affairs Council called on all European Union member states to adopt common designs and security features for national identity cards by December 2005, with detailed standards being laid out as soon as possible thereafter.[71]

On 4 December 2006, all European Union member states agreed to adopt the following common designs and minimum security standards for national identity cards that were in the draft resolution of 15 November 2006:[72][73]

Material

The card can be made with paper core that is laminated on both sides or made entirely of a synthetic substrate.

Biographical data

The data on the card shall contain at least: name, birth date, nationality, a photo, signature, card number, and end date of validity.[74] Some cards contain more information such as height, eye colour, start date of validity, sex, issue place or province, and birth place.

The biographical data on the card is to be machine readable and follow the ICAO specification for machine-readable travel documents.

The EU Regulation revising the Schengen Borders Code (which entered into force on 7 April 2017 and introduced systematic checks of the travel documents of EU, EEA and Swiss citizens against relevant databases when entering and leaving the Schengen Area) states that all member states should phase out travel documents (including national identity cards) which are not machine-readable.[75]

However, as of 2017, Greece continues to issue solely non-machine readable identity cards, while Italy is in the process of phasing out the issuing of non-machine readable paper booklets in favour of biometric cards.

Electronic identity cards

All EEA electronic identity cards should comply with the ISO/IEC standard 14443. Effectively this means that all these cards should implement electromagnetic coupling between the card and the card reader and, if the specifications are followed, are only capable of being read from proximities of less than 0.1 metres.[76]

They are not the same as the RFID tags often seen in stores and attached to livestock. Neither will they work at the relatively large distances typically seen at US toll booths or automated border crossing channels.[77]

The same ICAO specifications adopted by nearly all European passport booklets (Basic Access Control - BAC) means that miscreants should not be able to read these cards[78] unless they also have physical access to the card.[79] BAC authentication keys derive from the three lines of data printed in the MRZ on the obverse of each TD1 format identity card that begins "I".

According to the ISO 14443 standard, wireless communication with the card reader can not start until the identity card's chip has transmitted a unique identifier. Theoretically an ingenious attacker who has managed to secrete multiple reading devices in a distributed array (eg in arrival hall furniture) could distinguish bearers of MROTDs without having access to the relevant chip files. In concert with other information, this attacker might then be able to produce profiles specific to a particular card and, consequently its bearer. Defence is a trivial task when most electronic cards make new and randomised UIDs during every session [NH08] to preserve a level of privacy more comparable with contact cards than commercial RFID tags.[80]

The electronic identity cards of Austria, Belgium, Estonia, Finland, Germany,[81] Italy, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Portugal and Spain all have a digital signature application which, upon activation, enables the bearer to authenticate the card using their confidential PIN.[citation needed] Consequently they can, at least theoretically, authenticate documents to satisfy any third party that the document's not been altered after being digitally signed. This application uses a registered certificate in conjunction with public/private key pairs so these enhanced cards do not necessarily have to participate in online transactions.[82]

An unknown number of national European identity cards are issued with different functionalities for authentication while online. Some also have an additional contact chip containing their electronic signature functionality, such as the Swedish national identity card.[80]

Portugal's card had an EMV application but it was removed in newer versions from 16 January 2016.[83][84]

New European Union standards

Regulation 2019/1157
European Union regulation
Text with EEA relevance
TitleRegulation (EU) 2019/1157 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 20 June 2019 on strengthening the security of identity cards of Union citizens and of residence documents issued to Union citizens and their family members exercising their right of free movement
Made byEuropean Parliament and Council
Made underArt. 21(2) TFEU
Journal referenceL 188, pp. 67–78
History
Date made20 June 2019
Came into force10 July 2019
Applies from2 August 2021
Preparative texts
Commission proposal17 April 2018
Current legislation

The European identity card[85][86] is a common format of electronic identity document intended to replace and harmonize the various identity card models currently in use across the European Union and the European Economic Area.[lower-alpha 1] In accordance with its own laws, any Member State of the Union shall issue an identity card complying with the requirements of Regulation (EU) 2019/1157 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 20 June 2019 on strengthening the security of identity cards of Union citizens and of residence documents issued to Union citizens and their family members exercising their right of free movement, and articles 3/4/5 states that:[88]

  • Identity cards shall be produced in ID-1 format and shall contain a machine-readable zone (MRZ).
  • Security standards shall be based on ICAO Document 9303.
  • The document shall bear the title ‘Identity card’ in the official language and in at least one other official language of the institutions of the Union.
  • It shall contain the two-letter country code of the Member State issuing the card, printed in negative in a blue rectangle and encircled by 12 yellow stars on the front side.
  • It shall include a highly secure storage medium which shall contain a facial image of the holder of the card and two fingerprints in interoperable digital formats. The storage medium shall have sufficient capacity and capability to guarantee the integrity, the authenticity and the confidentiality of the data. The data stored shall be accessible in contactless form and secured as provided for in Implementing Decision C(2018) 7767.
  • Identity cards shall have a minimum period of validity of 5 years and a maximum period of validity of 10 years. But Member States may provide for a period of validity of less than 5 years for minors and more than 10 years for persons aged 70 and above.
  • Identity cards which do not meet the new requirements shall cease to be valid at their expiry or by 3 August 2031.
  • Identity cards which do not meet the minimum security standards or which do not include a functional MRZ shall cease to be valid at their expiry or by 3 August 2026.
  • Identity cards of persons aged 70 and above at 2 August 2021, which meet the minimum security standards and which have a functional MRZ shall cease to be valid at their expiry.

Article 16 states that this Regulation shall apply from 2 August 2021.

Overview of national identity cards


Member states issue a variety of national identity cards with differing technical specifications and according to differing issuing procedures.[89]

Member state Front Reverse Compulsory/optional Cost Validity Issuing authority Latest version

Austria
Identity documentation is optional
  • €61.50 (applicants aged 16 or over)
  • €26.30 (children aged 2–15)
  • Free of charge (children under 2)
  • 10 years (applicants aged 12 or over)
  • 5 years (children aged 2–11)
  • 2 years (children under 2)
3 May 2010

Belgium
Link to image Link to image National identity card compulsory for Belgian citizens aged 12 or over
  • Differs per city
  • equivalent of €11 or €17 in local currency (citizens registered abroad)
  • 6 years (for applicants aged between 12 and 18)
  • 10 years (for old style ID cards issued by Belgian consulates, or for applicants aged 18 to 75)
  • 30 years (for applicants aged over 75)
  • Municipal administration (of place of residence)
  • Consulate (citizens registered abroad)
6 January 2020[90]

Bulgaria
National identity card compulsory for Bulgarian citizens aged 14 or over
  • first card free (age 14-16)
  • €6.5 (age 14-18)
  • €9 (age 18-58)
  • €5.5 (age 58-70)
  • free (age >70)
  • Prices are for a 30-day issue, multiply by 2 for 3 day issue, by 5 for 8 hours.
  • No expiry (adults aged 58 or over)
  • 10 years (adults aged 18–57)
  • 4 years (children aged 14–17)
The police on behalf of the Ministry of the Interior. 29 March 2010

Croatia
National identity card compulsory for Croatian citizens resident in Croatia aged 18 or over
  • HRK 60 (age < 5)
  • HRK 79.50 (age 5-65)
  • HRK 49.50 (age > 65)[91]
  • Price for a 10-day issue is 195 HRK, and 500 HRK for a 3-day issue.
  • 5 years
  • No expiry (adults aged 65 or over)
The police on behalf of the Ministry of the Interior.[92] 8 June 2015

Cyprus
Link to image Link to image National identity card compulsory for Cypriot citizens aged 12 or over
  • €30 (applicants aged 18 or over)
  • €20 (children under 18)
  • 10 years
  • 5 years (applicants under 18)
12 August 2020

Czech Republic
National identity card compulsory for Czech citizens over 15 years of age with permanent residency in the Czech Republic
  • The version without a chip is free for permanent residents over 15 years of age (first card, renewal or a reissue due to a change in permanent residency, name or marital status)
  • 100 CZK for reissue for all other reasons (no chip)
  • 50 CZK (children under 15 years of age, no chip)
  • 500 CZK for all ID cards with an electronic chip for all reasons
  • 100 CZK for a temporary ID without machine readable data with 1 or 3 months validity
  • 10 years (applicants aged 15 or over)
  • 5 years (children aged under 15)
municipality on behalf of the Ministry of the Interior 19 May 2014

Denmark
No national identity card. Danish identity cards (issued by the counties) and driver's licences do not state nationality and therefore are not usable as travel documentation outside of the Nordic countries. (See Identity document#Denmark). Identity documentation is optional (for Danish and Nordic citizens[93]) N/A N/A N/A N/A

Estonia
Link to image Link to image National identity card compulsory for all Estonian citizens, permanent residents and EU/EEA citizens[citation needed] temporarily residing in Estonia aged 15 or over
  • €25 (applicants aged 15 or over) or €50 (in embassies)[94]
  • €7 (children under 15, retirees, persons with disabilities) or €10 (in embassies)
  • €45 (urgent)
5 years Police and Border Guard Board 3 December 2018

Finland
Link to image Link to image Identity documentation is optional
  • €49-55 (regular, for all citizens)[95]
  • €33-39 (children under 18, not valid as a travel document)

Fees are lower if application is made online and if a passport application is done at the same time.

5 years Police 1 January 2017[96]

France
Identity documentation is legally optional[97] but the police have extensive powers to check a person's identity in many situations, up to 4-hour detention to make the necessary verification and take a photograph.[98]
  • Free of charge
  • €25 (if the previous one cannot be presented, e.g., it was lost or stolen)

10 years[99]

  • Mairie (town hall, mainland France)
  • French consulate (overseas)
15 March 2021[99]

Germany
National identity card optional; however, a national identity card or passport is compulsory for German citizens aged 16 or over, and valid identity documentation is compulsory for other EEA citizens
  • €28.80 (applicants aged 24 or over)
  • €22.80 (applicants aged under 24)
  • 10 years (applicants aged 24 or over)
  • 6 years (applicants aged under 24)
  • City or town of residence
  • German embassy in country of residence (for German citizens living abroad)
1 November 2010
From 2 August 2021

Greece
National identity card compulsory for Greek citizens aged 12 or over
  • Free of charge for first issue
  • €9 for reissue if lost or destroyed (free if reported stolen)
15 years Police 1 July 2010

Hungary
National identity card optional; however, a national identity card, passport or driving licence is compulsory for Hungarian citizens aged 14
  • Free of charge
  • 60 years (adults aged 65 or over)
  • 6 years (adults aged over 18)
  • 3 years (children under 18, but only until the date on which the holder reaches the age of 12)
1 January 2016

Iceland
No national identity card. Icelandic state-issued identity cards and driver's licences do not state nationality and therefore are not usable as travel documentation outside of the Nordic countries. (See Identity document#Iceland). Identity documentation is optional (for Icelandic and Nordic citizens[93]) N/A N/A N/A N/A

Ireland
Link to image Link to image Identity documentation is optional. An identity card called "passport card" exists as a card version of a passport. It is optional and can be purchased by Irish passport holders for easy identification and travel within the EEA.[100][101] In general drivers licences are used as identity cards locally. Public service cards can be used as identity for social welfare purposes.

Travel documents (...) such as the passport card issued by Ireland, should not be considered as falling within the scope of this Regulation.((EU) 2019/1157 on strengthening the security of identity cards)[4]

  • €35 + must also hold passport book (€80)
  • 5 years maximum validity, or until the expiry date of the Passport Book (whichever comes first)
Passport Office, Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade 2 October 2015

Italy
National identity card optional, however, citizens should be able to prove their identity if stopped by territorial police
  • In Italy: usually €22.21 (price depends on municipality and may vary if previous card was lost, stolen or deteriorated)
  • Abroad: €21.95 or €27.11 (if previous card was lost or stolen)[102]
  • 3 years (children aged 0–3)
  • 5 years (minors aged 3–18)
  • 10 years (adults)[103]


Note: validity must always expire on birthday[104]

Ministry of the Interior through:
  • Municipality of residence (for Italian citizens and legal aliens)[103]
  • Italian consular office (only for Italian citizens residing abroad)[102]
4 July 2016


Note: as of 2019, the old paper-based identity card could still be issued abroad or in emergency


Latvia
Link to image Link to image National identity card optional; however, a national identity card or passport is compulsory for Latvian citizens aged 15 or over. Identity cards will be compulsory starting from 2023.[105]
  • €14.23
  • €7.11 (citizens under age of 20, retirees)
5 years Office of Citizenship and Migration Affairs 2 September 2019

Liechtenstein
Identity documentation is optional
  • CHF80 (adults aged 15 or over)
  • CHF30 (children under 15)
  • 10 years (adults aged 15 or over)
  • 3 years (children under 15)
Immigration and Passport Office, Vaduz 23 June 2008

Lithuania
Link to image Link to image National identity card optional; however, a national identity card or passport is compulsory for Lithuanian citizens aged 16 or over, and valid identity documentation is compulsory for other EEA citizens
  • €8.6
  • 10 years (adults aged 16 or over)
  • 5 years (children under 16)
Migration Department 29 March 2012

Luxembourg
Link to image Link to image National identity card compulsory for Luxembourgian citizens resident in Luxembourg aged 15 or over
  • 14€ (people aged 15 or over)
  • 10€ (children aged 4-14)
  • 5€ (children under 4)
  • 10 years (applicants aged 15 or over)
  • 5 years (children aged 4–14)
  • 2 years (children under 4)
1 July 2014 [106]

Malta

Link to image Link to image National identity card compulsory for Maltese citizens aged 18 or over
  • First time issuance of Identity Card: Free
  • Renewal of expired Identity Card (or containing any data that is no longer correct) which are not declared to be lost, stolen or defaced: Free
  • Applications for a new Identity Card in replacement of one which has been lost, stolen or destroyed: €22
  • Applications for a new Identity Card in replacement of one which has been defaced: €16.50
  • 10 years

August 2020[108][109]


Netherlands
Link to image National identity card optional;, however, valid identity documentation is compulsory for all persons aged 14 or over
  • €32.91 (applicants aged 17 or younger[110])
  • €64.03 (applicants aged 18 or older[110])
  • €74.05 (applicants aged 17 or younger abroad[111])
  • €105.10 (applicants aged 18 or older abroad[111])
  • 5 years (applicants aged 17 or younger)[112]
  • 10 years (applicants aged 18 or older, From 2014 onwards)[113]
  • Town hall in town of residence (European part of the Netherlands)
  • Consular section of Embassy abroad (only in countries in which the Dutch ID card is a valid travel document)
  • Dutch nationals, residing on the Dutch Caribbean islands, although also EU citizens, can only apply for a specific ID card issued by the island's authorities. These cards are not valid for travel in the EU.
9 March 2014

Norway
Identity documentation is optional
  • NOK 570 (adults and children aged 10 or older)
  • NOK 342 (children under 10)[114]
  • 5 years (adults and children aged 10 or older)
  • 3 years (children aged 5–9)
  • 2 years (children aged 0–4)[114]
Norwegian Police Service 30 November 2020.[115][116]

Poland
National identity card compulsory for Polish citizens resident in Poland aged 18 or over. Free of charge
  • 10 years (people over 5 years of age)
  • 5 years (minors under 5 years of age)
City Office 1 March 2019

Portugal
National identity card (called "Citizen Card") compulsory for Portuguese citizens aged 6 or over
  • Normal delivered in Portugal: €15
  • Normal delivered outside Portugal: €20
  • Expedited delivered in Portugal: €30
  • Expedited delivered outside Portugal: €45
  • Same day delivery with pick-up at IRN desk in Lisbon: €35
  • 10 years (adults aged over 25)
  • 5 years (applicants under 25)
Governos Civis 1 June 2009

Romania
Link to image National identity card compulsory for Romanian citizens aged 14 or over with permanent residence in Romania 12 RON to issue a new or a renewal card
  • No expiry (adults aged 55 or over)
  • 10 years (adults aged 25–54)
  • 7 years (adults aged 18–24)
  • 4 years (minors aged 14–17)
Ministry of Internal Affairs through the Directorate for Persons Record and Databases Management 2 February 2017

Slovakia
National identity card compulsory for Slovak citizens aged 15 or over [117]
  • Free of charge (first card, renewal after expiration)
  • €16.50 (reissue of lost or stolen card, free of change if card is stolen during a robbery)
  • €4.50 (reissue for all other reasons)
  • 10 years (citizens over 15 years)
  • 5 years (citizens under 15 years)
  • 2 years (citizens under 6 years)
Police 1 December 2013

Slovenia
Link to image Link to image National identity card optional; however, a form of ID with photo is compulsory for Slovenian citizens permanently resident in Slovenia aged 18 or over
  • €12.43 (children under the age of 3)
  • €14.25 (children aged 3–18)
  • €18.77 (applicants aged 18 and over)
  • 3 years (citizens under 3 years)
  • 5 years (citizens under 18 years)
  • 10 years (citizens over 18 years)
  • Administrative Unit
  • Ministry of Home Affairs
  • Ministry of Foreign Affairs
20 June 1998

Spain
Link to image Link to image National identity card compulsory for Spanish citizens aged 14 or over €12
  • No expiry (adults over 70)
  • 10 years (adults aged 30–70)
  • 5 years (applicants under 30)
Police 20 January 2016

Sweden
Identity documentation is optional SEK 400 5 years Police 2 January 2012

Switzerland
Link to image Link to image Identity documentation is optional
  • CHF 70 (adults)
  • CHF 35 (children)
  • 10 years (adults)
  • 5 years (children)
Federal Office of Police through canton / municipality of residence 1 November 2005

See also


Notes


  1. The legal acquis has been identified as EEA-relevant by the EU Commission, which makes it under scrutiny for incorporation into the EEA Agreement by Iceland, Liechtenstein and Norway. However, the legal basis rely on Article 21 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union, an article which is not reflected in the EEA Agreement.[87]

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