The Nazi Party, officially the National Socialist German Workers' Party (German: Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei or NSDAP), was a far-right political party in Germany active between 1920 and 1945, that created and supported the ideology of Nazism. Its precursor, the German Workers' Party (Deutsche Arbeiterpartei; DAP), existed from 1919 to 1920. The Nazi Party emerged from the German nationalist, racist and populist Freikorps paramilitary culture, which fought against the communist uprisings in post-World War I Germany. The party was created to draw workers away from communism and into völkisch nationalism. Initially, Nazi political strategy focused on anti-big business, anti-bourgeois, and anti-capitalist rhetoric. This was later downplayed to gain the support of business leaders, and in the 1930s the party's main focus shifted to antisemitic and anti-Marxist themes.
|Chairman||Anton Drexler (1920–1921)|
|Führer||Adolf Hitler (1921–1945)|
|Party Minister||Martin Bormann (April–May 1945)|
|Founded||24 February 1920|
|Dissolved||10 October 1945|
|Preceded by||German Workers' Party|
|Headquarters||Brown House, Munich, Germany|
|Student wing||National Socialist German Students' League|
|Youth wing||Hitler Youth, League of German Girls|
|Paramilitary wings||SA, SS, Motor Corps, Flyers Corps|
|Sports body||National Socialist League of the Reich for Physical Exercise|
|Women's wing||National Socialist Women's League|
|Labour wing||German Labour Front|
|Slogan||"Ein Volk, ein Reich, ein Führer" (English: "One People, One Nation, One Leader") (unofficial)|
("Horst Wessel Song")
|Part of a series on|
Pseudoscientific racist theories were central to Nazism, expressed in the idea of a "people's community" (Volksgemeinschaft). The party aimed to unite "racially desirable" Germans as national comrades, while excluding those deemed either to be political dissidents, physically or intellectually inferior, or of a foreign race (Fremdvölkische). The Nazis sought to strengthen the Germanic people, the "Aryan master race", through racial purity and eugenics, broad social welfare programs, and a collective subordination of individual rights, which could be sacrificed for the good of the state on behalf of the people. To protect the supposed purity and strength of the Aryan race, the Nazis sought to exterminate Jews, Romani, Poles and most other Slavs, along with the physically and mentally disabled. They disenfranchised and segregated homosexuals, black people, Jehovah's Witnesses, and political opponents. The persecution reached its climax when the party-controlled German state set in motion the Final Solution—an industrial system of genocide which achieved the murder of around 6 million Jews and millions of other targeted victims, in what has become known as the Holocaust.
Adolf Hitler, the party's leader since 1921, was appointed Chancellor of Germany by President Paul von Hindenburg on 30 January 1933. Hitler rapidly established a totalitarian regime known as the Third Reich. Following the defeat of the Third Reich at the end of World War II in Europe, the party was "declared to be illegal" by the Allied powers, who carried out denazification in the years after the war both in Germany and in territories occupied by Nazi forces. The use of any symbols associated with the party is now outlawed in many European countries, including Germany and Austria.
Nazi, the informal and originally derogatory term for a party member, abbreviates the party's name (Nationalsozialist [natsi̯oˈnaːlzotsi̯aˌlɪst]), and was coined in analogy with Sozi (pronounced [ˈzoːtsiː]), an abbreviation of Sozialdemokrat (member of the rival Social Democratic Party of Germany). Members of the party referred to themselves as Nationalsozialisten (National Socialists), but some did occasionally embrace the colloquial Nazi (so Leopold von Mildenstein in his article series Ein Nazi fährt nach Palästina published in Der Angriff in 1934). The term Parteigenosse (party member) was commonly used among Nazis, with its corresponding feminine form Parteigenossin.
The term was in use before the rise of the party as a colloquial and derogatory word for a backward peasant, an awkward and clumsy person. It derived from Ignaz, a shortened version of Ignatius, which was a common name in the Nazis' home region of Bavaria. Opponents seized on this, and the long-existing Sozi, to attach a dismissive nickname to the National Socialists.
In 1933, when Adolf Hitler assumed power in the German government, the usage of "Nazi" diminished in Germany, although Austrian anti-Nazis continued to use the term, and the use of "Nazi Germany" and "Nazi regime" was popularised by anti-Nazis and German exiles abroad. Thereafter, the term spread into other languages and eventually was brought back to Germany after World War II. In English, the term is not considered slang and has such derivatives as Nazism and denazification.
Origins and early years: 1918–1923
The party grew out of smaller political groups with a nationalist orientation that formed in the last years of World War I. In 1918, a league called the Freier Arbeiterausschuss für einen guten Frieden (Free Workers' Committee for a good Peace) was created in Bremen, Germany. On 7 March 1918, Anton Drexler, an avid German nationalist, formed a branch of this league in Munich. Drexler was a local locksmith who had been a member of the militarist Fatherland Party during World War I and was bitterly opposed to the armistice of November 1918 and the revolutionary upheavals that followed. Drexler followed the views of militant nationalists of the day, such as opposing the Treaty of Versailles, having antisemitic, anti-monarchist and anti-Marxist views, as well as believing in the superiority of Germans whom they claimed to be part of the Aryan "master race" (Herrenvolk). However, he also accused international capitalism of being a Jewish-dominated movement and denounced capitalists for war profiteering in World War I. Drexler saw the political violence and instability in Germany as the result of the Weimar Republic being out-of-touch with the masses, especially the lower classes. Drexler emphasised the need for a synthesis of völkisch nationalism with a form of economic socialism, in order to create a popular nationalist-oriented workers' movement that could challenge the rise of Communism and internationalist politics. These were all well-known themes popular with various Weimar paramilitary groups such as the Freikorps.
Drexler's movement received attention and support from some influential figures. Supporter Dietrich Eckart, a well-to-do journalist, brought military figure Felix Graf von Bothmer, a prominent supporter of the concept of "national socialism", to address the movement. Later in 1918, Karl Harrer (a journalist and member of the Thule Society) convinced Drexler and several others to form the Politischer Arbeiterzirkel (Political Workers' Circle). The members met periodically for discussions with themes of nationalism and racism directed against Jewish people. In December 1918, Drexler decided that a new political party should be formed, based on the political principles that he endorsed, by combining his branch of the Workers' Committee for a good Peace with the Political Workers' Circle.
On 5 January 1919, Drexler created a new political party and proposed it should be named the "German Socialist Workers' Party", but Harrer objected to the term "socialist"; so the term was removed and the party was named the German Workers' Party (Deutsche Arbeiterpartei, DAP). To ease concerns among potential middle-class supporters, Drexler made clear that unlike Marxists the party supported the middle-class and that its socialist policy was meant to give social welfare to German citizens deemed part of the Aryan race. They became one of many völkisch movements that existed in Germany. Like other völkisch groups, the DAP advocated the belief that through profit-sharing instead of socialisation Germany should become a unified "people's community" (Volksgemeinschaft) rather than a society divided along class and party lines. This ideology was explicitly antisemitic. As early as 1920, the party was raising money by selling a tobacco called Anti-Semit.
From the outset, the DAP was opposed to non-nationalist political movements, especially on the left, including the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD) and the Communist Party of Germany (KPD). Members of the DAP saw themselves as fighting against "Bolshevism" and anyone considered a part of or aiding so-called "international Jewry". The DAP was also deeply opposed to the Versailles Treaty. The DAP did not attempt to make itself public and meetings were kept in relative secrecy, with public speakers discussing what they thought of Germany's present state of affairs, or writing to like-minded societies in Northern Germany.
The DAP was a comparatively small group with fewer than 60 members. Nevertheless, it attracted the attention of the German authorities, who were suspicious of any organisation that appeared to have subversive tendencies. In July 1919, while stationed in Munich, army Gefreiter Adolf Hitler was appointed a Verbindungsmann (intelligence agent) of an Aufklärungskommando (reconnaissance unit) of the Reichswehr (army) by Captain Mayr, the head of the Education and Propaganda Department (Dept Ib/P) in Bavaria. Hitler was assigned to influence other soldiers and to infiltrate the DAP. While attending a party meeting on 12 September 1919 at Munich's Sterneckerbräu, Hitler became involved in a heated argument with a visitor, Professor Baumann, who questioned the soundness of Gottfried Feder's arguments against capitalism; Baumann proposed that Bavaria should break away from Prussia and found a new South German nation with Austria. In vehemently attacking the man's arguments, Hitler made an impression on the other party members with his oratorical skills; according to Hitler, the "professor" left the hall acknowledging unequivocal defeat. Drexler encouraged him to join the DAP. On the orders of his army superiors, Hitler applied to join the party and within a week was accepted as party member 555 (the party began counting membership at 500 to give the impression they were a much larger party). Among the party's earlier members were Ernst Röhm of the Army's District Command VII; Dietrich Eckart, who has been called the spiritual father of National Socialism; then-University of Munich student Rudolf Hess; Freikorps soldier Hans Frank; and Alfred Rosenberg, often credited as the philosopher of the movement. All were later prominent in the Nazi regime.
Hitler later claimed to be the seventh party member (he was in fact the seventh executive member of the party's central committee and he would later wear the Golden Party Badge number one). Anton Drexler drafted a letter to Hitler in 1940—which was never sent—that contradicts Hitler's later claim:
No one knows better than you yourself, my Führer, that you were never the seventh member of the party, but at best the seventh member of the committee... And a few years ago I had to complain to a party office that your first proper membership card of the DAP, bearing the signatures of Schüssler and myself, was falsified, with the number 555 being erased and number 7 entered.
Hitler's first DAP speech was held in the Hofbräukeller on 16 October 1919. He was the second speaker of the evening, and spoke to 111 people. Hitler later declared that this was when he realised he could really "make a good speech". At first, Hitler spoke only to relatively small groups, but his considerable oratory and propaganda skills were appreciated by the party leadership. With the support of Anton Drexler, Hitler became chief of propaganda for the party in early 1920. Hitler began to make the party more public, and organised its biggest meeting yet of 2,000 people on 24 February 1920 in the Staatliches Hofbräuhaus in München. Such was the significance of this particular move in publicity that Karl Harrer resigned from the party in disagreement. It was in this speech that Hitler enunciated the twenty-five points of the German Workers' Party manifesto that had been drawn up by Drexler, Feder and himself. Through these points he gave the organisation a much bolder stratagem with a clear foreign policy (abrogation of the Treaty of Versailles, a Greater Germany, Eastern expansion and exclusion of Jews from citizenship) and among his specific points were: confiscation of war profits, abolition of unearned incomes, the State to share profits of land and land for national needs to be taken away without compensation. In general, the manifesto was antisemitic, anti-capitalist, anti-democratic, anti-Marxist and anti-liberal. To increase its appeal to larger segments of the population, on the same day as Hitler's Hofbräuhaus speech on 24 February 1920, the DAP changed its name to the Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei ("National Socialist German Workers' Party", or Nazi Party). The word "Socialist" was added by the party's executive committee, over Hitler's objections, in order to help appeal to left-wing workers.
In 1920, the Nazi Party officially announced that only persons of "pure Aryan descent [rein arischer Abkunft]" could become party members and if the person had a spouse, the spouse also had to be a "racially pure" Aryan. Party members could not be related either directly or indirectly to a so-called "non-Aryan". Even before it had become legally forbidden by the Nuremberg Laws in 1935, the Nazis banned sexual relations and marriages between party members and Jews. Party members found guilty of Rassenschande ("racial defilement") were persecuted heavily. Some members were even sentenced to death.
Hitler quickly became the party's most active orator, appearing in public as a speaker 31 times within the first year after his self-discovery. Crowds began to flock to hear his speeches. Hitler always spoke about the same subjects: the Treaty of Versailles and the Jewish question. This deliberate technique and effective publicising of the party contributed significantly to his early success, about which a contemporary poster wrote: "Since Herr Hitler is a brilliant speaker, we can hold out the prospect of an extremely exciting evening".[page needed] Over the following months, the party continued to attract new members, while remaining too small to have any real significance in German politics. By the end of the year, party membership was recorded at 2,000, many of whom Hitler and Röhm had brought into the party personally, or for whom Hitler's oratory had been their reason for joining.
Hitler's talent as an orator and his ability to draw new members, combined with his characteristic ruthlessness, soon made him the dominant figure. However, while Hitler and Eckart were on a fundraising trip to Berlin in June 1921, a mutiny broke out within the party in Munich. Members of its executive committee wanted to merge with the rival German Socialist Party (DSP). Upon returning to Munich on 11 July, Hitler angrily tendered his resignation. The committee members realised that his resignation would mean the end of the party. Hitler announced he would rejoin on condition that he would replace Drexler as party chairman, and that the party headquarters would remain in Munich. The committee agreed, and he rejoined the party on 26 July as member 3,680. Hitler continued to face some opposition within the NSDAP, as his opponents had Hermann Esser expelled from the party and they printed 3,000 copies of a pamphlet attacking Hitler as a traitor to the party. In the following days, Hitler spoke to several packed houses and defended himself and Esser to thunderous applause.
His strategy proved successful; at a special party congress on 29 July 1921, he replaced Drexler as party chairman by a vote of 533 to 1. The committee was dissolved, and Hitler was granted nearly absolute powers as the party's sole leader. He would hold the post for the remainder of his life. Hitler soon acquired the title Führer ("leader") and after a series of sharp internal conflicts it was accepted that the party would be governed by the Führerprinzip ("leader principle"). Under this principle, the party was a highly centralised entity that functioned strictly from the top down, with Hitler at the apex as the party's absolute leader. Hitler saw the party as a revolutionary organisation, whose aim was the overthrow of the Weimar Republic, which he saw as controlled by the socialists, Jews and the "November criminals" who had betrayed the German soldiers in 1918. The SA ("storm troopers", also known as "Brownshirts") were founded as a party militia in 1921 and began violent attacks on other parties.
For Hitler, the twin goals of the party were always German nationalist expansionism and antisemitism. These two goals were fused in his mind by his belief that Germany's external enemies—Britain, France and the Soviet Union—were controlled by the Jews and that Germany's future wars of national expansion would necessarily entail a war of annihilation against them.[page needed] For Hitler and his principal lieutenants, national and racial issues were always dominant. This was symbolised by the adoption as the party emblem of the swastika. In German nationalist circles, the swastika was considered a symbol of an "Aryan race" and it symbolised the replacement of the Christian Cross with allegiance to a National Socialist State.
The Nazi Party grew significantly during 1921 and 1922, partly through Hitler's oratorical skills, partly through the SA's appeal to unemployed young men, and partly because there was a backlash against socialist and liberal politics in Bavaria as Germany's economic problems deepened and the weakness of the Weimar regime became apparent. The party recruited former World War I soldiers, to whom Hitler as a decorated frontline veteran could particularly appeal, as well as small businessmen and disaffected former members of rival parties. Nazi rallies were often held in beer halls, where downtrodden men could get free beer. The Hitler Youth was formed for the children of party members. The party also formed groups in other parts of Germany. Julius Streicher in Nuremberg was an early recruit and became editor of the racist magazine Der Stürmer. In December 1920, the Nazi Party had acquired a newspaper, the Völkischer Beobachter, of which its leading ideologist Alfred Rosenberg became editor. Others to join the party around this time were Heinrich Himmler and World War I flying ace Hermann Göring.
On 31 October 1922, a party with similar policies and objectives came into power in Italy, the National Fascist Party, under the leadership of the charismatic Benito Mussolini. The Fascists, like the Nazis, promoted a national rebirth of their country, as they opposed communism and liberalism; appealed to the working-class; opposed the Treaty of Versailles; and advocated the territorial expansion of their country. The Italian Fascists used a straight-armed Roman salute and wore black-shirted uniforms. Hitler was inspired by Mussolini and the Fascists, borrowing their use of the straight-armed salute as a Nazi salute. When the Fascists came to power in 1922 in Italy through their coup attempt called the "March on Rome", Hitler began planning his own coup.
In January 1923, France occupied the Ruhr industrial region as a result of Germany's failure to meet its reparations payments. This led to economic chaos, the resignation of Wilhelm Cuno's government and an attempt by the German Communist Party (KPD) to stage a revolution. The reaction to these events was an upsurge of nationalist sentiment. Nazi Party membership grew sharply to about 20,000. By November, Hitler had decided that the time was right for an attempt to seize power in Munich, in the hope that the Reichswehr (the post-war German military) would mutiny against the Berlin government and join his revolt. In this, he was influenced by former General Erich Ludendorff, who had become a supporter—though not a member—of the Nazis.
On the night of 8 November, the Nazis used a patriotic rally in a Munich beer hall to launch an attempted putsch ("coup d'état"). This so-called Beer Hall Putsch attempt failed almost at once when the local Reichswehr commanders refused to support it. On the morning of 9 November, the Nazis staged a march of about 2,000 supporters through Munich in an attempt to rally support. Troops opened fire and 16 Nazis were killed. Hitler, Ludendorff and a number of others were arrested and were tried for treason in March 1924. Hitler and his associates were given very lenient prison sentences. While Hitler was in prison, he wrote his semi-autobiographical political manifesto Mein Kampf ("My Struggle").
The Nazi Party was banned on 9 November 1923; however, with the support of the nationalist Völkisch-Social Bloc (Völkisch-Sozialer Block), it continued to operate under the name "German Party" (Deutsche Partei or DP) from 1924 to 1925. The Nazis failed to remain unified in the DP, as in the north, the right-wing Volkish nationalist supporters of the Nazis moved to the new German Völkisch Freedom Party, leaving the north's left-wing Nazi members, such as Joseph Goebbels retaining support for the party.
Rise to power: 1925–1933
This section needs additional citations for verification. (February 2017)
Adolf Hitler was released from prison on 20 December 1924. On 16 February 1925, Hitler convinced the Bavarian authorities to lift the ban on the NSDAP and the party was formally refounded on 26 February 1925, with Hitler as its undisputed leader. The new Nazi Party was no longer a paramilitary organisation and disavowed any intention of taking power by force. In any case, the economic and political situation had stabilised and the extremist upsurge of 1923 had faded, so there was no prospect of further revolutionary adventures. The Nazi Party of 1925 was divided into the "Leadership Corps" (Korps der politischen Leiter) appointed by Hitler and the general membership (Parteimitglieder). The party and the SA were kept separate and the legal aspect of the party's work was emphasised. In a sign of this, the party began to admit women. The SA and the SS members (the latter founded in 1925 as Hitler's bodyguard, and known originally as the Schutzkommando) had to all be regular party members.
In the 1920s, the Nazi Party expanded beyond its Bavarian base. Catholic Bavaria maintained its right-wing nostalgia for a Catholic monarch; and Westphalia, along with working-class "Red Berlin", were always the Nazis' weakest areas electorally, even during the Third Reich itself. The areas of strongest Nazi support were in rural Protestant areas such as Schleswig-Holstein, Mecklenburg, Pomerania and East Prussia. Depressed working-class areas such as Thuringia also produced a strong Nazi vote, while the workers of the Ruhr and Hamburg largely remained loyal to the Social Democrats, the Communist Party of Germany or the Catholic Centre Party. Nuremberg remained a Nazi Party stronghold, and the first Nuremberg Rally was held there in 1927. These rallies soon became massive displays of Nazi paramilitary power and attracted many recruits. The Nazis' strongest appeal was to the lower middle-classes—farmers, public servants, teachers and small businessmen—who had suffered most from the inflation of the 1920s, so who feared Bolshevism more than anything else. The small business class was receptive to Hitler's antisemitism, since it blamed Jewish big business for its economic problems. University students, disappointed at being too young to have served in the War of 1914–1918 and attracted by the Nazis' radical rhetoric, also became a strong Nazi constituency. By 1929, the party had 130,000 members.
The party's nominal Deputy Leader was Rudolf Hess, but he had no real power in the party. By the early 1930s, the senior leaders of the party after Hitler were Heinrich Himmler, Joseph Goebbels and Hermann Göring. Beneath the Leadership Corps were the party's regional leaders, the Gauleiters, each of whom commanded the party in his Gau ("region"). Goebbels began his ascent through the party hierarchy as Gauleiter of Berlin-Brandenburg in 1926. Streicher was Gauleiter of Franconia, where he published his antisemitic newspaper Der Stürmer. Beneath the Gauleiter were lower-level officials, the Kreisleiter ("county leaders"), Zellenleiter ("cell leaders") and Blockleiter ("block leaders"). This was a strictly hierarchical structure in which orders flowed from the top and unquestioning loyalty was given to superiors. Only the SA retained some autonomy. Being composed largely of unemployed workers, many SA men took the Nazis' socialist rhetoric seriously. At this time, the Hitler salute (borrowed from the Italian fascists) and the greeting "Heil Hitler!" were adopted throughout the party.
The Nazis contested elections to the national parliament (the Reichstag) and to the state legislature (the Landtage) from 1924, although at first with little success. The "National Socialist Freedom Movement" polled 3% of the vote in the December 1924 Reichstag elections and this fell to 2.6% in 1928. State elections produced similar results. Despite these poor results and despite Germany's relative political stability and prosperity during the later 1920s, the Nazi Party continued to grow. This was partly because Hitler, who had no administrative ability, left the party organisation to the head of the secretariat, Philipp Bouhler, the party treasurer Franz Xaver Schwarz and business manager Max Amann. The party had a capable propaganda head in Gregor Strasser, who was promoted to national organizational leader in January 1928. These men gave the party efficient recruitment and organizational structures. The party also owed its growth to the gradual fading away of competitor nationalist groups, such as the German National People's Party (DNVP). As Hitler became the recognised head of the German nationalists, other groups declined or were absorbed.
Despite these strengths, the Nazi Party might never have come to power had it not been for the Great Depression and its effects on Germany. By 1930, the German economy was beset with mass unemployment and widespread business failures. The Social Democrats and Communists were bitterly divided and unable to formulate an effective solution: this gave the Nazis their opportunity and Hitler's message, blaming the crisis on the Jewish financiers and the Bolsheviks, resonated with wide sections of the electorate. At the September 1930 Reichstag elections, the Nazis won 18% of the votes and became the second-largest party in the Reichstag after the Social Democrats. Hitler proved to be a highly effective campaigner, pioneering the use of radio and aircraft for this purpose. His dismissal of Strasser and his appointment of Goebbels as the party's propaganda chief were major factors. While Strasser had used his position to promote his own leftish version of national socialism, Goebbels was totally loyal to Hitler and worked only to improve Hitler's image.
The 1930 elections changed the German political landscape by weakening the traditional nationalist parties, the DNVP and the DVP, leaving the Nazis as the chief alternative to the discredited Social Democrats and the Zentrum, whose leader, Heinrich Brüning, headed a weak minority government. The inability of the democratic parties to form a united front, the self-imposed isolation of the Communists and the continued decline of the economy, all played into Hitler's hands. He now came to be seen as de facto leader of the opposition and donations poured into the Nazi Party's coffers. Some major business figures, such as Fritz Thyssen, were Nazi supporters and gave generously and some Wall Street figures were allegedly involved,[page needed] but many other businessmen were suspicious of the extreme nationalist tendencies of the Nazis and preferred to support the traditional conservative parties instead.
During 1931 and into 1932, Germany's political crisis deepened. Hitler ran for president against the incumbent Paul von Hindenburg in March 1932, polling 30% in the first round and 37% in the second against Hindenburg's 49% and 53%. By now the SA had 400,000 members and its running street battles with the SPD and Communist paramilitaries (who also fought each other) reduced some German cities to combat zones. Paradoxically, although the Nazis were among the main instigators of this disorder, part of Hitler's appeal to a frightened and demoralised middle class was his promise to restore law and order. Overt antisemitism was played down in official Nazi rhetoric, but was never far from the surface. Germans voted for Hitler primarily because of his promises to revive the economy (by unspecified means), to restore German greatness and overturn the Treaty of Versailles and to save Germany from communism. On 24 April 1932, the Free State of Prussia elections to the Landtag resulted in 36% of the votes and 162 seats for the NSDAP.
On 20 July 1932, the Prussian government was ousted by a coup, the Preussenschlag; a few days later at the July 1932 Reichstag election the Nazis made another leap forward, polling 37% and becoming the largest party in parliament by a wide margin. Furthermore, the Nazis and the Communists between them won 52% of the vote and a majority of seats. Since both parties opposed the established political system and neither would join or support any ministry, this made the formation of a majority government impossible. The result was weak ministries governing by decree. Under Comintern directives, the Communists maintained their policy of treating the Social Democrats as the main enemy, calling them "social fascists", thereby splintering opposition to the Nazis. Later, both the Social Democrats and the Communists accused each other of having facilitated Hitler's rise to power by their unwillingness to compromise.
Chancellor Franz von Papen called another Reichstag election in November, hoping to find a way out of this impasse. The electoral result was the same, with the Nazis and the Communists winning 50% of the vote between them and more than half the seats, rendering this Reichstag no more workable than its predecessor. However, support for the Nazis had fallen to 33.1%, suggesting that the Nazi surge had passed its peak—possibly because the worst of the Depression had passed, possibly because some middle-class voters had supported Hitler in July as a protest, but had now drawn back from the prospect of actually putting him into power. The Nazis interpreted the result as a warning that they must seize power before their moment passed. Had the other parties united, this could have been prevented, but their shortsightedness made a united front impossible. Papen, his successor Kurt von Schleicher and the nationalist press magnate Alfred Hugenberg spent December and January in political intrigues that eventually persuaded President Hindenburg that it was safe to appoint Hitler as Reich Chancellor, at the head of a cabinet including only a minority of Nazi ministers—which he did on 30 January 1933.
Ascension and consolidation
In Mein Kampf, Hitler directly attacked both left-wing and right-wing politics in Germany. However, a majority of scholars identify Nazism in practice as being a far-right form of politics.[page needed] When asked in an interview in 1934 whether the Nazis were "bourgeois right-wing" as alleged by their opponents, Hitler responded that Nazism was not exclusively for any class and indicated that it favoured neither the left nor the right, but preserved "pure" elements from both "camps" by stating: "From the camp of bourgeois tradition, it takes national resolve, and from the materialism of the Marxist dogma, living, creative Socialism".
The votes that the Nazis received in the 1932 elections established the Nazi Party as the largest parliamentary faction of the Weimar Republic government. Hitler was appointed as Chancellor of Germany on 30 January 1933.
The Reichstag fire on 27 February 1933 gave Hitler a pretext for suppressing his political opponents. The following day he persuaded the Reich's President Paul von Hindenburg to issue the Reichstag Fire Decree, which suspended most civil liberties. The NSDAP won the parliamentary election on 5 March 1933 with 44% of votes, but failed to win an absolute majority. After the election, hundreds of thousands of new members joined the party for opportunistic reasons, most of them civil servants and white-collar workers. They were nicknamed the "casualties of March" (German: Märzgefallenen) or "March violets" (German: Märzveilchen). To protect the party from too many non-ideological turncoats who were viewed by the so-called "old fighters" (alte Kämpfer) with some mistrust, the party issued a freeze on admissions that remained in force from May 1933 to 1937.
On 23 March, the parliament passed the Enabling Act of 1933, which gave the cabinet the right to enact laws without the consent of parliament. In effect, this gave Hitler dictatorial powers. Now possessing virtually absolute power, the Nazis established totalitarian control as they abolished labour unions and other political parties and imprisoned their political opponents, first at wilde Lager, improvised camps, then in concentration camps. Nazi Germany had been established, yet the Reichswehr remained impartial. Nazi power over Germany remained virtual, not absolute.
(as National Socialist Freedom Movement)
|1,918,300||6.5 (No. 6)||
32 / 472
|Hitler in prison|
(as National Socialist Freedom Movement)
|907,300||3.0 (No. 8)||3.5||
14 / 493
|18||Hitler released from prison|
|May 1928||810,100||2.6 (No. 9)||0.4||
12 / 491
|September 1930||6,409,600||18.3 (No. 2)||15.7||
107 / 577
|95||After the financial crisis|
|July 1932||13,745,000||37.3 (No. 1)||19.0||
230 / 608
|123||After Hitler was candidate for presidency|
|November 1932||11,737,000||33.1 (No. 1)||4.2||
196 / 584
|March 1933||17,277,180||43.9 (No. 1)||10.8||
288 / 647
|92||During Hitler's term as Chancellor of Germany|
After taking power: intertwining of party and state
During June and July 1933, all competing parties were either outlawed or dissolved themselves and subsequently the Law against the founding of new parties of 14 July 1933 legally established the Nazi Party's monopoly. On 1 December 1933, the Law to secure the unity of party and state entered into force, which was the base for a progressive intertwining of party structures and state apparatus. By this law, the SA—actually a party division—was given quasi-governmental authority and their leader was co-opted as an ex officio cabinet member. By virtue of a 30 January 1934 Law concerning the reorganisation of the Reich, the Länder (states) lost their statehood and were demoted to administrative divisions of the Reich's government (Gleichschaltung). Effectively, they lost most of their power to the Gaue that were originally just regional divisions of the party, but took over most competencies of the state administration in their respective sectors.
During the Röhm Purge of 30 June to 2 July 1934 (also known as the "Night of the Long Knives"), Hitler disempowered the SA's leadership—most of whom belonged to the Strasserist (national revolutionary) faction within the NSDAP—and ordered them killed. He accused them of having conspired to stage a coup d'état, but it is believed that this was only a pretence to justify the suppression of any intraparty opposition. The purge was executed by the SS, assisted by the Gestapo and Reichswehr units. Aside from Strasserist Nazis, they also murdered anti-Nazi conservative figures like former chancellor Kurt von Schleicher. After this, the SA continued to exist but lost much of its importance, while the role of the SS grew significantly. Formerly only a sub-organisation of the SA, it was made into a separate organisation of the NSDAP in July 1934.
After the death of President Hindenburg on 2 August 1934, Hitler merged the offices of party leader, head of state and chief of government in one, taking the title of Führer und Reichskanzler. The Chancellery of the Führer, officially an organisation of the Nazi Party, took over the functions of the Office of the President (a government agency), blurring the distinction between structures of party and state even further. The SS increasingly exerted police functions, a development which was formally documented by the merger of the offices of Reichsführer-SS and Chief of the German Police on 17 June 1936, as the position was held by Heinrich Himmler who derived his authority directly from Hitler. The Sicherheitsdienst (SD, formally the "Security Service of the Reichsführer-SS") that had been created in 1931 as an intraparty intelligence became the de facto intelligence agency of Nazi Germany. It was put under the Reich Security Main Office (RSHA) in 1939, which then coordinated SD, Gestapo and criminal police, therefore functioning as a hybrid organisation of state and party structures.
661 / 661
741 / 741
813 / 813
Defeat and abolition
Officially, the Third Reich lasted only 12 years. The Instrument of Surrender was signed by representatives of the German High Command at Berlin, on 8 May 1945. The war in Europe had come to an end. The defeat of Germany in World War II marked the end of the Nazi Germany era. The party was formally abolished on 10 October 1945 by the Allied Control Council and denazification began, along with trials of major war criminals before the International Military Tribunal (IMT) in Nuremberg. Part of the Potsdam Agreement called for the destruction of the Nationalist Socialist Party alongside the requirement for the reconstruction of the German political life. In addition, the Control Council Law no. 2 Providing for the Termination and Liquidation of the Nazi Organization specified the abolition of 52 other Nazi affiliated and supervised organisations and prohibited their activities. The denazification was carried out in Germany and continued until the onset of the Cold War.[page needed]
Between 1939 and 1945, the Nazi Party led regime, assisted by collaborationist governments and recruits from occupied countries, was responsible for the deaths of at least eleven million people, including 5.5 to 6 million Jews (representing two-thirds of the Jewish population of Europe), and between 200,000 and 1,500,000 Romani people. The estimated total number includes the killing of nearly two million non-Jewish Poles, over three million Soviet prisoners of war, communists, and other political opponents, homosexuals, the physically and mentally disabled.
The National Socialist Programme was a formulation of the policies of the party. It contained 25 points and is therefore also known as the "25-point plan" or "25-point programme". It was the official party programme, with minor changes, from its proclamation as such by Hitler in 1920, when the party was still the German Workers' Party, until its dissolution.
At the top of the Nazi Party was the party chairman ("Der Führer"), who held absolute power and full command over the party. All other party offices were subordinate to his position and had to depend on his instructions. In 1934, Hitler founded a separate body for the chairman, Chancellery of the Führer, with its own sub-units.
Below the Führer's chancellery was first the "Staff of the Deputy Führer", headed by Rudolf Hess from 21 April 1933 to 10 May 1941; and then the "Party Chancellery" (Parteikanzlei), headed by Martin Bormann.
Directly subjected to the Führer were the Reichsleiter ("Reich Leader(s)"—the singular and plural forms are identical in German), whose number was gradually increased to eighteen. They held power and influence comparable to the Reich Ministers' in Hitler's Cabinet. The eighteen Reichsleiter formed the "Reich Leadership of the Nazi Party" (Reichsleitung der NSDAP), which was established at the so-called Brown House in Munich. Unlike a Gauleiter, a Reichsleiter did not have individual geographic areas under their command, but were responsible for specific spheres of interest.
Nazi Party offices
The Nazi Party had a number of party offices dealing with various political and other matters. These included:
- Rassenpolitisches Amt der NSDAP (RPA): "NSDAP Office of Racial Policy"
- Außenpolitische Amt der NSDAP (APA): "NSDAP Office of Foreign Affairs"
- Kolonialpolitisches Amt der NSDAP (KPA): "NSDAP Office of Colonial Policy"
- Wehrpolitisches Amt der NSDAP (WPA): "NSDAP Office of Military Policy"
- Amt Rosenberg (ARo): "Rosenberg Office"
In addition to the Nazi Party proper, several paramilitary groups existed which "supported" Nazi aims. All members of these paramilitary organisations were required to become regular Nazi Party members first and could then enlist in the group of their choice. An exception was the Waffen-SS, considered the military arm of the SS and Nazi Party, which during the Second World War allowed members to enlist without joining the Nazi Party. Foreign volunteers of the Waffen-SS were also not required to be members of the Nazi Party, although many joined local nationalist groups from their own countries with the same aims. Police officers, including members of the Gestapo, frequently held SS rank for administrative reasons (known as "rank parity") and were likewise not required to be members of the Nazi Party.
A vast system of Nazi Party paramilitary ranks developed for each of the various paramilitary groups. This was part of the process of Gleichschaltung with the paramilitary and auxiliary groups swallowing existing associations and federations after the Party was flooded by millions of membership applications.
The major Nazi Party paramilitary groups were as follows:
- Schutzstaffel (SS): "Protection Squadron" (both Allgemeine SS and Waffen-SS)
- Sturmabteilung (SA): "Storm Division"
- Nationalsozialistisches Fliegerkorps (NSFK): "National Socialist Flyers Corps"
- Nationalsozialistisches Kraftfahrerkorps (NSKK): "National Socialist Motor Corps"
The Hitler Youth was a paramilitary group divided into an adult leadership corps and a general membership open to boys aged fourteen to eighteen. The League of German Girls was the equivalent group for girls.
Certain nominally independent organisations had their own legal representation and own property, but were supported by the Nazi Party. Many of these associated organisations were labour unions of various professions. Some were older organisations that were nazified according to the Gleichschaltung policy after the 1933 takeover.
- Reich League of German Officials (union of civil servants, predecessor to German Civil Service Federation)
- German Labour Front (DAF)
- National Socialist German Doctors' League
- National Socialist League for the Maintenance of the Law (NSRB, 1936–1945, earlier National Socialist German Lawyers' League)
- National Socialist War Victim's Care (NSKOV)
- National Socialist Teachers League (NSLB)
- National Socialist People's Welfare (NSV)
- Reich Labour Service (RAD)
- German Faith Movement
- German Colonial League (RKB)
- German Red Cross
- Kyffhäuser League
- Technical Emergency Relief (TENO)
- Reich's Union of Large Families
- Reichsluftschutzbund (RLB)
- Reichskolonialbund (RKB)
- Bund Deutscher Osten (BDO)
- German American Bund
The employees of large businesses with international operations such as Deutsche Bank, Dresdner Bank, and Commerzbank were mostly party members. All German businesses abroad were also required to have their own Nazi Party Ausland-Organization liaison men, which enabled the party leadership to obtain updated and excellent intelligence on the actions of the global corporate elites.[page needed]
For the purpose of centralisation in the Gleichschaltung process a rigidly hierarchal structure was established in the Nazi Party, which it later carried through in the whole of Germany in order to consolidate total power under the person of Hitler (Führerstaat). It was regionally sub-divided into a number of Gaue (singular: Gau) headed by a Gauleiter, who received their orders directly from Hitler. The name (originally a term for sub-regions of the Holy Roman Empire headed by a Gaugraf) for these new provincial structures was deliberately chosen because of its mediaeval connotations. The term is approximately equivalent to the English shire.
While the Nazis maintained the nominal existence of state and regional governments in Germany itself, this policy was not extended to territories acquired after 1937. Even in German-speaking areas such as Austria, state and regional governments were formally disbanded as opposed to just being dis-empowered.
After the Anschluss a new type of administrative unit was introduced called a Reichsgau. In these territories the Gauleiters also held the position of Reichsstatthalter, thereby formally combining the spheres of both party and state offices. The establishment of this type of district was subsequently carried out for any further territorial annexations of Germany both before and during World War II. Even the former territories of Prussia were never formally re-integrated into what was then Germany's largest state after being re-taken in the 1939 Polish campaign.
The Gaue and Reichsgaue (state or province) were further sub-divided into Kreise (counties) headed by a Kreisleiter, which were in turn sub-divided into Zellen (cells) and Blocken (blocks), headed by a Zellenleiter and Blockleiter respectively.
A reorganisation of the Gaue was enacted on 1 October 1928. The given numbers were the official ordering numbers. The statistics are from 1941, for which the Gau organisation of that moment in time forms the basis. Their size and populations are not exact; for instance, according to the official party statistics the Gau Kurmark/Mark Brandenburg was the largest in the German Reich.[page needed] By 1941, there were 42 territorial Gaue for Germany, 7 of them for Austria, the Sudetenland (in Czechoslovakia), Danzig and the Territory of the Saar Basin, along with the unincorporated regions under German control known as the Protectorate of Bohemia-Moravia and the General Government, established after the joint invasion of Poland by Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union in 1939 at the onset of World War II. Getting the leadership of the individual Gaue to co-operate with one another proved difficult at times since there was constant administrative and financial jockeying for control going on between them.
The table below uses the organizational structure that existed before its dissolution in 1945. More information on the older Gaue is in the second table.
Nazi Party Gaue
|Nr.||Gau||Headquarters||Area (km2)||Inhabitants (1941)||Gauleiter (exl. deputies)|
|01||Baden-Elsaß||Karlsruhe, after 1940 Strasbourg||23,350||2,502,023||Robert Heinrich Wagner from 1925 (later also Reichsstatthalter)|
|02||Bayreuth, renaming of Gau Bayerische Ostmark (Bavarian Eastern March)||Bayreuth||29,600||2,370,658||Fritz Wächtler (2 June 1942 – 19 April 1945)|
Ludwig Ruckdeschel from 19 April 1945.
|03||Groß-Berlin||Berlin||884||4,338,756||Ernst Schlange (1925–1926)|
Joseph Goebbels (1 November 1926 – 30 April 1945)
|04||Danzig-Westpreußen||Danzig||26,057||2,287,394||Hans Albert Hohnfeldt (1926–1928)|
Walter Maass (1928–1930)
Albert Forster from 15 October 1930
|05||Düsseldorf||Düsseldorf||2,672||2,261,909||Friedrich Karl Florian from 1 January 1930|
|06||Essen||Essen||2,825||1,921,326||Josef Terboven (Oberpräsident) from 1928|
|07||Franken||Nuremberg||7,618||1,077,216||Julius Streicher (1929 to 1940)|
Hans Zimmermann (16 February 1940 – 1942)
Karl Holz from 19 March 1942
|08||Halle-Merseburg||Halle an der Saale||10,202||1,578,292||Walter Ernst (1 August 1926 – 1927)|
Paul Hinkler (1927–1930)
Rudolf Jordan (1930 – 20 April 1937)
Joachim Albrecht Eggeling from 20 April 1937
|09||Hamburg||Hamburg||747||1,711,877||Joseph Klant (1925–1926)|
Albert Krebs (1927–1928)
Hinrich Lohse (1928 – 15 April 1929)
Karl Kaufmann from 15 April 1929
|10||Hessen-Nassau||Frankfurt||15,030||3,117,266||Jakob Sprenger from 1933|
|11||Kärnten||Klagenfurt||11,554||449,713||Hans vom Kothen (February 1933 to July 1934)|
Peter Feistritzer (October 1936 – 20 February 1938)
Hubert Klausner (1938–1939)
Franz Kutschera (1940–1941)
Friedrich Rainer (1942–1944)
|12||Köln-Aachen||Köln||8,162||2,432,095||Joseph Grohé from 1931|
|13||Kurhessen||Kassel||9,200||971,887||Walter Schultz (1926–1927)|
Karl Weinrich (1928–1943)
Karl Gerland from 1943
|14||Magdeburg-Anhalt||Dessau||13,910||1,820,416||Wilhelm Friedrich Loeper from 1927 to 23 October 1935 with a short replacement by Paul Hofmann in 1933|
Joachim Albrecht Leo Eggeling (1935–1937)
Rudolf Jordan from 1937
|15||Mainfranken, renaming of Gau Unterfranken||Würzburg||8,432||840,663||Otto Hellmuth from 3 September 1928|
|16||Mark Brandenburg||Berlin||38,278||3,007,933||Wilhelm Kube (6 March 1933 – 7 August 1936)|
|17||Mecklenburg||Schwerin||15,722||900,427||Friedrich Hildebrandt from 1925 onwards with a short replacement by Herbert Albrecht (July 1930 – 1931)|
|18||Moselland, renaming of Gau Koblenz-Trier in 1942||Koblenz||11,876||1,367,354||Gustav Simon from 1 June 1931|
|19||München-Oberbayern,||Munich||16,411||1,938,447||Adolf Wagner (1933–1944)|
Paul Giesler from April 1944
|20||Niederdonau||Nominal capital: Krems, District Headquarters: Vienna||23,502||1,697,676||Roman Jäger (12 March 1938 – 24 May 1938)|
Hugo Jury (24 May 1938 – 8 May 1945)
|21||Niederschlesien||Breslau||26,985||3,286,539||Karl Hanke from 1940|
|22||Oberdonau||Linz||14,216||1,034,871||Andreas Bolek (June 1927 – 1 August 1934)|
August Eigruber from March 1935
|23||Oberschlesien||Kattowitz||20,636||4,341,084||Fritz Bracht from 27 January 1941|
|24||Ost-Hannover (also known as Hannover-Ost)||Harburg, then Buchholz, after 1 April 1937 Lüneburg||18,006||1,060,509||from 1 October 1928 Otto Telschow|
|25||Ostpreußen||Königsberg||52,731||3,336,777||Bruno Gustav Scherwitz (1925–1927)|
Erich Koch from 1928
|26||Pommern||Stettin||38,409||2,393,844||Theodor Vahlen (1925–1927)|
Walter von Corswant (1928–1931)
Wilhelm Karpenstein (1931–1934)
Franz Schwede-Coburg from 1935
|27||Sachsen||Dresden||14,995||5,231,739||Albert Wierheim around 1925/1926|
Martin Mutschmann from 1925
|28||Salzburg||Salzburg||7,153||257,226||Leopold Malina from 1926 to ??|
Karl Scharizer (1932–1934)
Friedrich Rainer (1939–1941)
Gustav Adolf Scheel from 1941
|29||Schleswig-Holstein||Kiel||15,687||1,589,267||Hinrich Lohse from 1925|
|30||Schwaben||Augsburg||10,231||946,212||Karl Wahl from 1928|
|31||Steiermark||Graz||17,384||1,116,407||Walther Oberhaidacher (25 November 1928 – 1934)|
Sepp Helfrich (1934–1938)
Siegfried Uiberreither from 22 May 1938
|32||Sudetenland, until 1939 known as Gau Sudetengau||Reichenberg||22,608||2,943,187||Konrad Henlein from 1939|
|33||Südhannover-Braunschweig||Hannover||14,553||2,136,961||Bernhard Rust (1 October 1928 – November 1940)|
Hartmann Lauterbacher from November 1940
|34||Thüringen||Weimar||15,763||2,446,182||Artur Dinter (1925–1927)|
Fritz Sauckel from 1927
|35||Tirol-Vorarlberg||Innsbruck||13,126||486,400||Franz Hofer from 1932|
|36||Wartheland, (until 29 January 1940 known as Gau Warthegau)||Posen||43,905||4,693,722||Arthur Karl Greiser from 21 October 1939|
|37||Weser-Ems||Oldenburg||15,044||1,839,302||Carl Röver (1929–1942)|
Paul Wegener from 1942
|38||Westfalen-Nord||Münster||14,559||2,822,603||Alfred Meyer from 1932|
|39||Westfalen-Süd||Bochum||7,656||2,678,026||Josef Wagner (1932–1941)|
Paul Giesler (1941 – 1943/1944)
Albert Hoffmann from 1943/1944
|40||Westmark, renaming of Gau Saar-Pfalz (also known as Saarpfalz)||Neustadt an der Weinstraße, after 1940 Saarbrücken||14,713||1,892,240||Josef Bürckel (1935 – 28 September 1944)|
Willi Stöhr from 28 September 1944
|41||Wien||Vienna||1,216||1,929,976||Alfred Eduard Frauenfeld (1932–1938)|
Odilo Globocnik (May 1938 – January 1939)
Josef Bürckel (1939–1940)
Baldur von Schirach from 1940
|42||Württemberg-Hohenzollern||Stuttgart||20,657||2,974,373||Eugen Mander (1925–1928)|
Wilhelm Murr from 1928
|43||Auslandsorganisation (also known as NSDAP/AO)||Berlin||Hans Nieland (1930–1933)|
Ernst Wilhelm Bohle from 8 May 1933
Gaue dissolved before 1945
Simple re-namings of existing Gaue without territorial changes is marked with the initials RN in the column "later became". The numbering is not based on any official former ranking, but merely listed alphabetically.
|Nr.||Gau||consisted of||later became||... together with||Gauleiter|
|01||Anhalt||Magdeburg-Anhalt (1927)||Elbe-Havel||Gustav Hermann Schmischke|
|02||Baden||Baden-Elsaß (22 March 1941) RN||see above|
|03||Bayerische Ostmark||Oberfranken & Niederbayern-Oberpfalz (II) (19 January 1933)||Bayreuth (2 June 1942) RN||Hans Schemm from 19 January 1933 to 5 March 1935, then from 5 March 1935 Fritz Wächtler|
|04||Berlin||Berlin-Brandenburg (1 October 1928)||Groß-Berlin RN||Dr. Joseph Goebbels|
|05||Berlin-Brandenburg||Berlin & Brandenburg (1 October 1928)||Ernst Schlange from 1925 to 1926, then from 1 November 1926 Joseph Goebbels|
|06||Brandenburg||Berlin-Brandenburg (1 October 1928)||Kurmark (6 March 1933)||Ostmark||from 1 October 1928 to 1932 Emil Holtz and from 18 October 1932 to 16 March 1933 Dr. Ernst Schlange|
|07||Braunschweig||Süd-Hannover-Braunschweig (1 October 1928)||Hannover-Süd||from 1925 to 30 September 1928 Ludolf Haase (perhaps also only for Hannover-Süd)|
|08||Danzig||Danzig-Westpreußen (1939) RN||see above|
|09||Elbe-Havel||Magdeburg-Anhalt (1927)||Anhalt||from 25 November 1925 to 1926 [?] Alois Bachschmidt|
|10||Groß-München ("Traditionsgau")||München-Oberbayern (1933)||Oberbayern||[?]|
|11||Hannover-Süd||Süd-Hannover-Braunschweig (1 October 1928)||Braunschweig||from 1925 to 30 September 1928 Ludolf Haase (perhaps also only Braunschweig)|
|12||Hessen-Darmstadt||Hessen-Nassau (1933)||Hessen-Nassau-Süd||from 1 March 1927 to 9 January 1931 Friedrich Ringshausen, then only in 1931 Peter Gemeinder, then from 1932 to 1933 Karl Lenz|
|14||Hessen-Nassau-Süd||Hessen-Nassau (1933)||Hessen-Darmstadt||from 1925 to 1926 Anton Haselmayer, then from 1926 to 1927 Dr. Walter Schultz, then from 1927 to 1933 Jakob Sprenger|
|15||Koblenz-Trier||Rheinland-Süd (1931)||Moselland (1942) merger||[?]|
|16||Kurmark||Ostmark & Brandenburg ([?])||Mark Brandenburg (1938) RN||see above|
|17||Lüneburg-Stade||Ost-Hannover (1928) RN||from 22 March 1925 to 30 September 1928 Bernhard Rust|
|18||Mittelfranken||Franken (1929)||Nuremberg-Forth-Erlangen||Julius Streicher ("Frankenführer")|
|19||Niederbayern||Niederbayern-Oberpfalz (I) (1 October 1928)||Niederbayern-Oberpfalz (II) (1 April 1932)||Oberpfalz||from 1 October 1928 to 1929 Gregor Strasser, then from 1929 to 1 April 1932 Otto Erbersdobler|
|20||Niederbayern-Oberpfalz (I)||Oberpfalz & Niederbayern (1 October 1928)||from 1925 to 30 September 1928 Gregor Strasser|
|21||Niederbayern-Oberpfalz (II)||Oberpfalz & Niederbayern (1 April 1932)||Bayerische Ostmark (19 January 1933)||Oberfranken||from 1 April 1932 to 19 January 1933 Franz Mayerhofer|
|22||Niederösterreich||Niederdonau ([?]) RN [??]||from 1927 to 1937 Josef Leopold [possibly Lücke from 1937 to 1939, since he is the first Gauleiter for Niederdonau who is actually known]|
|23||Nuremberg-Forth-Erlangen||Franken (1929)||Mittelfranken||from 3 September 1928 Wilhelm Grimm|
|25||Oberfranken||Bayerische Ostmark (19 January 1933)||Niederbayern-Oberpfalz (II)||from 1928 Hans Schemm|
|26||Oberösterreich||Oberdonau ([?]) RN||[precise moment of leader designation unknown, see also "Oberdonau"]|
|27||Oberpfalz||Niederbayern-Oberpfalz (I) (1 October 1928)||Niederbayern-Oberpfalz (II) (1 April 1932)||Niederbayern||from 1 October 1928 to 1 April 1932 Franz Mayerhofer|
|28||Ostmark||Kurmark (6 March 1933)||Brandenburg||from 2 January 1928 to 1933 Wilhelm Kube|
|29||Rheinland||Saar-Pfalz (1935)||Saar(land)||from 1926 Josef Bürckel (from 1 March 1933 also administrator of Saarland)|
|30||Rheinland-Nord||Ruhr (1926)||Westfalen||from 1925 to 1926 Karl Kaufmann|
|31||Rheinland-Süd||[?Koblenz-Trier also autonomous before 1931?]||Köln-Aachen & Koblenz-Trier (1931)||1925 Heinrich Haake (also known as "Heinz Haake"), then from 1925 to 1931 Robert Ley|
|32||Ruhr||Rheinland-Nord & Westfalen (1926)||Westfalen-Nord & Westfalen-Süd (1932)||Düsseldorf (1930) partially; creation of Düsseldorf nicht gesichert||from 1926 to 1929 Karl Kaufmann, then from 1929 to 1931 [?not 1932?] Josef Wagner|
|33||Saarland, also merely Saar||Saar-Pfalz (1935)||Rheinland||from August 1929 to 28 February 1933 Karl Brück, from 1 March 1933 Josef Bürckel (also administrator of Rheinland)|
|34||Saar-Pfalz, also Saarpfalz||Rheinland & Saar(land) (1935)||Westmark (1937) RN||see above|
|35||Schlesien||Niederschlesien & Oberschlesien (1940)||from 15 March 1925 to 25 December 1935 (possibly until only 12 December 1934) Helmuth Brückner, then to 1940 Josef Wagner|
|36||Sudetengau||Sudetenland (1939) RN||[?]|
|37||Unterfranken||Mainfranken (1935) RN||see above|
|38||Warthegau||Wartheland (29 January 1940) RN||see above|
|39||Westfalen||Ruhr (1926)||Rheinland-Nord||from 1925 to 1926 Franz Pfeffer von Salomon|
Associated organisations abroad
Gaue in Switzerland
The irregular Swiss branch of the Nazi Party also established a number of Party Gaue in that country, most of them named after their regional capitals. These included Gau Basel-Solothurn, Gau Schaffhausen, Gau Luzern, Gau Bern and Gau Zürich. The Gau Ostschweiz (East Switzerland) combined the territories of three cantons: St. Gallen, Thurgau and Appenzell.
The general membership of the Nazi Party mainly consisted of the urban and rural lower middle classes. 7% belonged to the upper class, another 7% were peasants, 35% were industrial workers and 51% were what can be described as middle class. In early 1933, just before Hitler's appointment to the chancellorship, the party showed an under-representation of "workers", who made up 30% of the membership but 46% of German society. Conversely, white-collar employees (19% of members and 12% of Germans), the self-employed (20% of members and 10% of Germans) and civil servants (15% of members and 5% of the German population) had joined in proportions greater than their share of the general population. These members were affiliated with local branches of the party, of which there were 1,378 throughout the country in 1928. In 1932, the number had risen to 11,845, reflecting the party's growth in this period.
When it came to power in 1933, the Nazi Party had over 2 million members. In 1939, the membership total rose to 5.3 million with 81% being male and 19% being female. It continued to attract many more and by 1945 the party reached its peak of 8 million with 63% being male and 37% being female (about 10% of the German population of 80 million).
Nazi members with military ambitions were encouraged to join the Waffen-SS, but a great number enlisted in the Wehrmacht and even more were drafted for service after World War II began. Early regulations required that all Wehrmacht members be non-political and any Nazi member joining in the 1930s was required to resign from the Nazi Party.
However, this regulation was soon waived and full Nazi Party members served in the Wehrmacht in particular after the outbreak of World War II. The Wehrmacht Reserves also saw a high number of senior Nazis enlisting, with Reinhard Heydrich and Fritz Todt joining the Luftwaffe, as well as Karl Hanke who served in the army.
The British historian Richard J. Evans wrote that junior officers in the army were inclined to be especially zealous National Socialists with a third of them having joined the Nazi Party by 1941. Reinforcing the work of the junior leaders were the National Socialist Leadership Guidance Officers, which were created with the purpose of indoctrinating the troops for the "war of extermination" against Soviet Russia. Among higher-ranking officers, 29% were NSDAP members by 1941.
In 1926, the party formed a special division to engage the student population, known as the National Socialist German Students' League (NSDStB). A group for university lecturers, the National Socialist German University Lecturers' League (NSDDB), also existed until July 1944.
Membership outside Germany
Party members who lived outside Germany were pooled into the Auslands-Organisation (NSDAP/AO, "Foreign Organization"). The organisation was limited only to so-called "Imperial Germans" (citizens of the German Empire); and "Ethnic Germans" (Volksdeutsche), who did not hold German citizenship were not permitted to join.
Deutsche Gemeinschaft was a branch of the Nazi Party founded in 1919, created for Germans with Volksdeutsche status. It is not to be confused with the post-war right-wing Deutsche Gemeinschaft, which was founded in 1949.
Notable members included:[page needed]
- Oswald Menghin (Vienna)
- Herbert Czaja (Province of Silesia inside Prussia)
- Hermann Neubacher who was responsible for invading Yugoslavia.
- Rudolf Much (Vienna)
- Arthur Seyß-Inquart (Vienna)
- Nazi flags: The Nazi Party used a right-facing swastika as their symbol and the red and black colours were said to represent Blut und Boden ("blood and soil"). Another definition of the flag describes the colours as representing the ideology of National Socialism, the swastika representing the Aryan race and the Aryan nationalist agenda of the movement; white representing Aryan racial purity; and red representing the socialist agenda of the movement. Black, white and red were in fact the colours of the old North German Confederation flag (invented by Otto von Bismarck, based on the Prussian colours black and white and the red used by northern German states). In 1871, with the foundation of the German Reich the flag of the North German Confederation became the German Reichsflagge ("Reich flag"). Black, white and red became the colours of the nationalists through the following history (for example World War I and the Weimar Republic).
- The Parteiflagge design, with the centred swastika disc, served as the party flag from 1920. Between 1933 (when the Nazi Party came to power) and 1935, it was used as the National flag (Nationalflagge) and Merchant flag (Handelsflagge), but interchangeably with the black-white-red horizontal tricolour. In 1935, the black-white-red horizontal tricolour was scrapped (again) and the flag with the off-centre swastika and disc was instituted as the national flag, and remained as such until 1945. The flag with the centred disk continued to be used after 1935, but exclusively as the Parteiflagge, the flag of the party.
- German eagle: The Nazi Party used the traditional German eagle, standing atop of a swastika inside a wreath of oak leaves. It is also known as the "Iron Eagle". When the eagle is looking to its left shoulder, it symbolises the Nazi Party and was called the Parteiadler. In contrast, when the eagle is looking to its right shoulder, it symbolises the country (Reich) and was therefore called the Reichsadler. After the Nazi Party came to national power in Germany, they replaced the traditional version of the German eagle with the modified party symbol throughout the country and all its institutions.
Ranks and rank insignia
Slogans and songs
|Election year||Votes||%||Seats won||+/–||Notes|
12 / 491
107 / 577
230 / 608
196 / 584
|34||Last free and fair election.|
288 / 647
|92||Semi-free yet questionable election.|
Last multi-party contested election.
661 / 661
|373||Sole legal party.|
741 / 741
|80||Sole legal party.|
813 / 813
|72||Sole legal party.|
|Election year||Candidate||First round||Second round|
|1925||endorsed Ludendorff (1.1%)||endorsed Hindenburg (48.3%)|
Volkstag of Danzig
|Election year||Votes||%||Seats won||+/–|
1 / 72
12 / 72
38 / 72
43 / 72
- English: / /, NA(H)T-see.
- Pronounced [natsi̯oˈnaːlzotsi̯aˌlɪstɪʃə ˈdɔʏtʃə ˈʔaʁbaɪtɐpaʁˌtaɪ] (listen).
- or Sozialdemokrat (pronounced [zoˈtsi̯aːldemoˌkʁaːt], "social democrat").
- Some sources say the name change happened on 1 April 1920
- "Social democracy is objectively the moderate wing of fascism. … These organisations (ie Fascism and social democracy) are not antipodes, they are twins." (J.V. Stalin: Concerning the International Situation (September 1924), in Works, Volume 6, 1953; p. 294.) This later led Otto Wille Kuusinen to conclude that "The aims of the fascists and the social-fascists are the same." (Report To the 10th Plenum of ECCI, in International Press Correspondence, Volume 9, no. 40, (20 August 1929), p. 848.)
- Hitler stated: "Today our left-wing politicians in particular are constantly insisting that their craven-hearted and obsequious foreign policy necessarily results from the disarmament of Germany, whereas the truth is that this is the policy of traitors […] But the politicians of the Right deserve exactly the same reproach. It was through their miserable cowardice that those ruffians of Jews who came into power in 1918 were able to rob the nation of its arms."
- The 43rd Gau known as the Auslandsorganisation is non-territorial.
- Kershaw 1998, pp. 164–65.
- Steves 2010, p. 28.
- McNab 2011, pp. 22, 23.
- Davidson 1997, p. 241.
- Orlow 2010, p. 29.
- Jones 2003.
- Fritzsche, Peter, 1959- (1998). Germans into Nazis. Mazal Holocaust Collection. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-674-35091-X. OCLC 37157352.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
- Eatwell, Roger (1997). Fascism : a history. New York: Penguin Books. pp. xvii–xxiv, 21, 26–31, 114–40, 352. ISBN 0-14-025700-4. OCLC 37930848.
- Grant 2004, pp. 30–34, 44.
- Mitchell 2008, p. 47.
- McDonough 2003, p. 64.
- Majer 2013, p. 39.
- Wildt 2012, pp. 96–97.
- Gigliotti & Lang 2005, p. 14.
- Evans 2008, p. 318.
- Arendt 1951, p. 306.
- Curtis 1979, p. 36.
- Burch 1964, p. 58.
- Maier 2004, p. 32.
- Elzer 2003, p. 602.
- Mautner 1944, p. 93–100.
- Hitler 1936, p. 10.
- Gottlieb & Morgensen 2007, p. 247.
- Harper n.d.
- Rabinbach & Gilman 2013, p. 4.
- Kershaw 2008, p. 82.
- Shirer 1991, p. 34.
- Spector 2014, p. 137. sfn error: no target: CITEREFSpector2014 (help)
- Griffen 1995, p. 105.
- Abel 2012, p. 55.
- Carlsten 1982, p. 91.
- Fest 1979, pp. 37–38.
- van der Vat 1997, p. 30.
- Shirer 1991, p. 33.
- Kershaw 2008, pp. 71–82.
- Kershaw 2008, p. 75.
- Evans 2003, p. 170.
- Kershaw 2008, pp. 75, 76.
- Mitcham 1996, p. 67.
- Blamires 2006, p. 185.
- Shirer 1991, p. 43.
- Jaman 1956, p. 88.
- Rees 2006, p. 23.
- Kershaw 1998, p. 127.
- Kershaw 1998, p. 140.
- Jaman 1956, p. 89.
- Shirer 1991, p. 36.
- Shirer 1991, p. 37.
- Johnson 1984, p. 133.
- Fest 1979, p. 42.
- Kershaw 2008, p. 87.
- Zentner & Bedürftig 1997, p. 629.
- Carruthers 2015.
- Lepage 2009, p. 9.
- Mitcham 1996, p. 68.
- Ehrenreich 2007, p. 58.
- Weikart 2009, p. 142.
- Gordon 1984, p. 265.
- Fest 1979, p. 39.
- Kershaw 2008, p. 89.
- Franz-Willing 2001, p. ?.
- Shirer 1991, p. 38.
- Fest 1979, p. 40.
- Kershaw 2008, pp. 100, 101.
- Kershaw 2008, p. 102.
- Kershaw 2008, p. 103.
- Kershaw 2008, pp. 83, 103.
- Hakim 1995, p. ?.
- Kershaw 2008, p. 110.
- Jablonsky 1989, p. 57.
- Weale 2010, pp. 26–29.
- Koehl 2004, p. 34.
- Kershaw 2008, p. 194.
- Evans 2005, p. 372.
- Sutton 2010, p. ?. sfn error: no target: CITEREFSutton2010 (help)
- Kershaw 2008, pp. 224.
- Hitler 2010, p. 287.
- Fritzsche 1998, p. ?; Eatwell 1996, pp. xvii–xxiv, 21, 26–31, 114–140, 352; Griffin 2000, p. ?.
- Domarus 2007, pp. 171–173.
- Beck 2013, p. 259.
- Ingrao 2013, p. 77.
- Kolb 2005, pp. 224–225.
- Kuntz 2011, p. 73.
- Schaarschmidt 2014, pp. 104–05.
- Evans 2015, p. 98.
- McNab 2013, p. 20.
- Kuntz 2011, p. 74.
- Delarue 2008, pp. x–xi.
- McNab 2009, p. 25.
- McNab 2009, pp. 25, 26.
- Lewkowicz 2008, p. 74.
- Cogen 2016, p. 226.
- Judt 2006, p. ?.
- Junker 2004, p. 65.
- Rummel 1994, p. 112.
- Snyder 2010, p. 416.
- Fischel 1998, p. 87.
- Bauer & Rozett 1990, p. 1799.
- Hancock 2004, pp. 383–396.
- Holocaust Memorial Museum.
- Snyder 2010, p. 184.
- Niewyk & Nicosia 2000, p. 45.
- Goldhagen 1996, p. 290.
- Steber & Gotto 2018, p. 91.
- Simpson 2002, pp. 149, 257, 299.
- Farrell 2008, p. ?.
- Materna & Ribbe 1995, p. ?.
- German Historical Institute 2008.
- Broszat 1985, pp. 44–47.
- Wolf 1969, pp. 121, 253, 283.
- Schom 1998.
- Historischer Verein des Kantons Bern 1973, p. 150.
- Glaus 1969, p. 147.
- Panayi 2007, p. 40.
- The History Place 2015.
- Evans 1989, p. 59.
- Bartov 1986, p. 49.
- Musiał 2009.
- Rosar 1971, p. ?.
- Abel, Theodore Fred (2012) . The Nazi Movement. Aldine Transaction. ISBN 978-1412846134.
- Arendt, Hannah (1951). The Origins of Totalitarianism. London; New York; San Diego: Harvest Book. OCLC 52814049.
- Bartov, Omer (1986). The Eastern Front, 1941–45: German Troops and the Barbarisation of Warfare. New York: St. Martin's Press. ISBN 978-0312224868.
- Bauer, Yehuda; Rozett, Robert (1990). "Appendix". In Gutman, Israel (ed.). Encyclopedia of the Holocaust. New York: Macmillan Library Reference. pp. 1797–1802. ISBN 0028960904.
- Beck, Hermann (2013). The Fateful Alliance: German Conservatives and Nazis in 1933: The Machtergreifung in a New Light. Berghahn Books. ISBN 978-0857454102.
- Blamires, Cyprian P. (2006). World Fascism: A Historical Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-1576079409. Archived from the original on 22 June 2013. Retrieved 13 March 2013.
- Broszat, Martin (1985). The Hitler State: The Foundation and Development of the Internal Structure of the Third Reich. London and New York: Longman.
- Burch, Betty Brand (1964). Dictatorship and Totalitarianism: Selected Readings. Van Nostrand.
- Carlsten, F. L. (1982). The Rise of Fascism (2nd ed.). University of California Press. ISBN 978-0520046436.
- Carruthers, Bob (2015). Hitler's Violent Youth: How Trench Warfare and Street Fighting Moulded Hitler. Pen and Sword. ISBN 978-1473859647.
- Cogen, Marc (2016). Democracies and the Shock of War: The Law as a Battlefield. Oxon: Routledge. ISBN 978-1409443636.
- Curtis, Michael (1979). Totalitarianism. New Brunswick (US); London: Transactions Publishers. ISBN 978-0878552887.
- Davidson, Eugene (1997). The Making of Adolf Hitler: The Birth and Rise of Nazism. University of Missouri Press. ISBN 978-0826211170. Archived from the original on 27 September 2015. Retrieved 14 August 2015.
- Delarue, Jacques (2008). The Gestapo: A History of Horror. Frontline Books. ISBN 978-1602392465.
- Domarus, Max (2007). Romane, Patrick (ed.). The Essential Hitler: Speeches and Commentary. ISBN 978-0865166271.
- Eatwell, Roger (1996). Fascism, A History. Penguin Books. ISBN 978-0140257007.
- Ehrenreich, Eric (2007). The Nazi Ancestral Proof: Genealogy, Racial Science, and the Final Solution. Indiana University Press. ISBN 978-0253116871.
- Elzer, Herbert, ed. (2003). Dokumente Zur Deutschlandpolitik. First half band – Appendix B, Section XI, §39. Oldenbourg Wissenschaftverlag. ISBN 3486566679. Archived from the original on 30 November 2015. Retrieved 6 April 2015.
- Evans, Richard J. (1989). In Hitler's Shadow West German Historians and the Attempt to Escape the Nazi Past (f ed.). New York: Pantheon. ISBN 978-0394576862.
- Evans, Richard J. (2003). The Coming of the Third Reich. New York; Toronto: Penguin. ISBN 978-0143034698.
- Evans, Richard J. (2005). The Third Reich in Power. New York: Penguin. ISBN 978-0143037903.
- Evans, Richard J. (2008). The Third Reich at War. New York: Penguin Group. ISBN 978-0143116714.
- Evans, Richard J. (2015). The Third Reich in History and Memory. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0190228392.
- Farrell, Joseph (2008). Nazi International: The Nazis' Postwar Plan to Control Finance, Conflict, Physics and Space. Kempton, Illinois: SCB Distributors. ISBN 978-1931882934.
- Fest, Joachim (1979). The Face of the Third Reich. Penguin books. ISBN 978-0201407143.
- Fischel, Jack R. (1998). The Holocaust. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. ISBN 0313298793.
- Franz-Willing, Georg (2001). Die Hitler-Bewegung: 1925 bis 193 (in German). Deutsche Verlagsgesellschaft. ISBN 978-3920722641.
- Fritzsche, Peter (1998). Germans into Nazis. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0674350922.
- German Historical Institute (2008). "Administrative Structure under National Socialism (1941)". Washington DC. Archived from the original on 10 January 2015. Retrieved 9 January 2014.
- Gigliotti, Simone; Lang, Berel, eds. (2005). The Holocaust: a reader. Malden, Massachusetts; Oxford, England; Carlton, Victoria, Australia: Blackwell Publishing. ISBN 978-1405114004.
- Glaus, Beat (1969). Die Nationale front (in German). Zürich.
- Goldhagen, Daniel (1996). Hitler's Willing Executioners: Ordinary Germans and the Holocaust. New York: Knopf. ISBN 978-0679446958.
- Gordon, Sarah Ann (1984). Hitler, Germans, and the "Jewish Question". Princeton University Press. ISBN 0691101620.
- Gottlieb, Henrik; Morgensen, Jens Erik, eds. (2007). Dictionary Visions, Research and Practice: Selected Papers from the 12th International Symposium on Lexicography, Copenhagen, 2004 (illustrated ed.). Amsterdam: J. Benjamins Pub. Co. ISBN 978-9027223340. Archived from the original on 5 September 2015. Retrieved 22 October 2014.
- Grant, Thomas D. (2004). Stormtroopers and Crisis in the Nazi Movement: Activism, Ideology and Dissolution. London; New York: Routledge. ISBN 978-0415196024.
- Griffen, Roger, ed. (1995). Fascism. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0192892492.
- Griffin, Roger (2000). "Revolution from the Right: Fascism". In Parker, David (ed.). Revolutions and the Revolutionary Tradition in the West 1560–1991. London: Routledge. ISBN 978-0415172950.
- Hakim, Joy (1995). A History of Us: War, Peace and all that Jazz. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0195095146.
- Hancock, Ian (2004). "Romanies and the Holocaust: A Reevaluation and an Overview". In Stone, Dan (ed.). The Historiography of the Holocaust. New York; Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 978-0333997451.
- Harper, Douglas (n.d.). "Nazi". etymonline.com. Online Etymology Dictionary. Archived from the original on 6 October 2014. Retrieved 22 October 2014.
- Historischer Verein des Kantons Bern (1973). Archiv des Historischen Vereins des Kantons Bern, vol 57–60. Stämpfliche Verlagshandlung.[ISBN missing]
- The History Place (2015). "German population in 1945". The History Place™. Archived from the original on 28 August 2015. Retrieved 28 August 2015.
- Hitler, Adolf (1936). Die Reden des Führers am Parteitag der Ehre, 1936 (in German). Munich: Zentralverlag der NSDAP. Archived from the original on 25 October 2012. Retrieved 25 March 2014.
Parteigenossen! Parteigenossinnen! Nationalsozialisten!
- Hitler, Adolf (2010). Mein Kampf. Bottom of the Hill Publishing. ISBN 978-1935785071.
- Holocaust Memorial Museum. "Introduction to the Holocaust". United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Retrieved 23 October 2017.
- Höhne, Heinz (2000) . The Order of the Death's Head: The Story of Hitler's SS (Der Orden unter dem Totenkopf: Die Geschichte der SS). London: Penguin. ISBN 978-0141390123.
- Ingrao, Christian (2013). Believe and Destroy: Intellectuals in the SS War Machine. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 978-0-7456-7004-1.
- Jablonsky, David (1989). The Nazi Party in Dissolution: Hitler and the Verbotzeit, 1923–1925. Routledge. ISBN 978-0714633220.
- Jaman, T. L. (1956). The Rise and Fall of Nazi Germany. New York: New York University Press.
- Johnson, Paul (1984). A History of the Modern World: From 1917 to the 1980s. Weidenfeld & Nicolson. ISBN 978-0297782261.
- Jones, Daniel (2003) . Roach, Peter; Hartmann, James; Setter, Jane (eds.). English Pronouncing Dictionary. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 3125396832.
- Judt, Tony (2006). Postwar: A History of Europe Since 1945. London: Penguin Books. ISBN 978-1440624766.
- Junker, Detlef (2004). The United States and Germany in the Era of the Cold War, 1945–1990: A Handbook, Volume 1. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0521791120.
- Kershaw, Ian (1998). Hitler: 1889–1936: Hubris. New York: W. W. Norton & Company. ISBN 0393046710.
- Kershaw, Ian (2008). Hitler: A Biography. New York: W. W. Norton & Company. ISBN 978-0393067576.
- Koehl, Robert (2004). The SS: A History 1919–45. Stroud: Tempus. ISBN 978-0752425597.
- Kolb, Eberhard (2005) . The Weimar Republic. London; New York: Routledge. ISBN 978-0415344418.
- Kuntz, Dieter (2011). Hitler and the functioning of the Third Reich. The Routledge History of the Holocaust. Routledge. ISBN 978-0415779562.
- Lepage, Jean-Denis G.G. (2009). Hitler Youth, 1922–1945: An Illustrated History. McFarland. ISBN 978-0786452811.
- Lewkowicz, Nicolas (2008). The German Question and the Origins of the Cold War. Milan: Ipoc Press. ISBN 978-8895145273.
- Maier, Hans, ed. (2004). Totalitarianism and Political Religions: Concepts for the Comparison of Dictatorships. Translated by Bruhn, Jodi. Oxon (UK); New York: Routledge. ISBN 978-0714656090.
- Majer, Diemut (2013). "Non-Germans" Under The Third Reich: The Nazi Judicial and Administrative System in Germany and Occupied Eastern Europe, with Special Regard to Occupied Poland, 1939–1945. Texas Tech University Press in association with the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. ISBN 978-0896728370.
- Materna, Ingo; Ribbe, Wolfgang, eds. (1995). Brandenburgische Geschichte (in German). De Gruyter Akademie Forschung. ISBN 978-3050025087. Retrieved 12 November 2010.
- Mautner, Franz H. (1944). "Nazi und Sozi". Modern Language Notes. 59 (2): 93–100. doi:10.2307/2910599. JSTOR 2910599.
Dass Nazi eine Abkürzung von Nationalsozialist ist … [u]nd zwar eine Verkürzung des Wortes auf seine ersten zwei Silben, aber nicht eine Zusammenziehung aus Nationalsozialist' …[… that Nazi is an abbreviation of Nationalsozialist … and to be precise a truncation of the word to its first two syllables, not a contraction of Nationalsozialist' …]
- McDonough, Frank (2003). Hitler and the Rise of the Nazi Party. Pearson/Longman. ISBN 978-0582506060.
- McNab, Chris (2009). The Third Reich. Amber Books. ISBN 978-1906626518.
- McNab, Chris (2011). Hitler's Masterplan: The Essential Facts and Figures for Hitler's Third Reich. Amber Books Ltd. ISBN 978-1907446962.
- McNab, Chris (2013). Hitler's Elite: The SS 1939–45. Osprey. ISBN 978-1782000884.
- Mitcham, Samuel W. (1996). Why Hitler?: The Genesis of the Nazi Reich. Westport, Connecticut: Praeger. ISBN 978-0275954857.
- Mitchell, Otis C. (2008). Hitler's Stormtroopers and the Attack on the German Republic, 1919–1933. Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland & Company, Inc. ISBN 978-0786477296.
- Musiał, Bogdan (2009). "Fakty wypaczone przez Erikę Steinbach" (in Polish). Rzeczpospolita. Archived from the original on 3 March 2012. Retrieved 24 June 2009.
- Niewyk, Donald L.; Nicosia, Francis R. (2000). The Columbia Guide to the Holocaust. New York: Columbia University Press. ISBN 978-0231112000.
- Orlow, Dietrich (2010). The Nazi Party 1919–1945: A Complete History. Enigma Books. ISBN 978-0982491195. Archived from the original on 1 October 2015. Retrieved 14 August 2015.
- Rabinbach, Anson; Gilman, Sander, eds. (2013). The Third Reich Sourcebook. Berkeley: California University Press. ISBN 978-0520955141. Archived from the original on 5 September 2015. Retrieved 14 August 2015.
- Panayi, P. (2007). Life and Death in a German Town: Osnabrück from the Weimar Republic to World War II and Beyond. New York: Tauris Academic Studies.
- Rees, Laurence (2006). The Nazis: A Warning From History. BBC Books. ISBN 978-0563493334.
- Rosar, Wolfgang (1971). Deutsche Gemeinschaft. Seyss-Inquart und der Anschluß (in German). Wien: Europa-Verlag. ISBN 978-3203503844.
- Rummel, Rudolph (1994). Death by Government. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction. ISBN 978-1560001454.
- Schaarschmidt, Thomas (2014). Mobilizing German Society for War: The National Socialist Gaue. Visions of Community in Nazi Germany. Oxford University Press.
- Schom, Alan Morris (1998). "NSDAP and Affiliated Meetings in Northern Switzerland for the Week of May 10–18, 1935". A Survey of Nazi and Pro-Nazi Groups in Switzerland: 1930–1945. Simon Wiesenthal Center. Archived from the original on 6 June 2011. Retrieved 17 October 2010.
- Shirer, William L. (1991) . The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich. London: Arrow Books. ISBN 978-0099421764.
- Simpson, Christopher (2002). War Crimes of the Deutsche Bank and the Dresdner Bank: Office of Military Government (U.S.) Reports. London: Lynne Rienner Publishers. ISBN 978-0841914070.
- Snyder, Timothy (2010). Bloodlands: Europe Between Hitler and Stalin. New York: Basic Books. ISBN 978-0465002399.
- Spector, Robert (2004). World Without Civilization: Mass Murder and the Holocaust, History, and Analysis. University of America Press.[ISBN missing]
- Steber, Martina; Gotto, Bernhard (2018). Visions of Community in Nazi Germany: Social Engineering and Private Lives. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0199689590.
- Steves, Rick (2010). Rick Steves' Snapshot Munich, Bavaria & Salzburg. Berkeley, California; New York: Avalon Travel. ISBN 978-1598806892.
Though the Nazis eventually gained power in Berlin, they remembered their roots, dubbing Munich "Capital of the Movement". The Nazi headquarters stood near today's obelisk on Brienner Strasse…
- van der Vat, Dan (1997). The Good Nazi: The Life and Lies of Albert Spee. George Weidenfeld & Nicolson. ISBN 0297817213.
- Weale, Adrian (2010). The SS: A New History. London: Little, Brown. ISBN 978-1408703045.
- Weikart, Richard (2009). Hitler's Ethic. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 978-0230623989.
- Wildt, Michael (15 July 2012). Hitler's Volksgemeinschaft and the Dynamics of Racial Exclusion: Violence Against Jews in Provincial Germany, 1919–1939. Berghahn Books: f. ISBN 978-0857453228.
- Wolf, Walter (1969). Faschismus in der Schweiz. Flamberg. Archived from the original on 18 October 2015.
- Zentner, Christian; Bedürftig, Friedemann (1997) . The Encyclopedia of the Third Reich. New York: Da Capo Press. ISBN 978-0306807930.