A neoplasm (/ˈn.ˌplæzəm, ˈn.ə-/)[1][2] is a type of abnormal and excessive growth of tissue. The process that occurs to form or produce a neoplasm is called neoplasia. The growth of a neoplasm is uncoordinated with that of the normal surrounding tissue, and persists in growing abnormally, even if the original trigger is removed.[3][4][5] This abnormal growth usually forms a mass, when it may be called a tumor.[6]

Other namesTumor, tumour, carcinocytes
Colectomy specimen containing a malignant neoplasm, namely an invasive example of colorectal cancer (the crater-like, reddish, irregularly shaped tumor)
CausesRadiation, environmental factor, certain infections

ICD-10 classifies neoplasms into four main groups: benign neoplasms, in situ neoplasms, malignant neoplasms, and neoplasms of uncertain or unknown behavior.[7] Malignant neoplasms are also simply known as cancers and are the focus of oncology.

Prior to the abnormal growth of tissue, as neoplasia, cells often undergo an abnormal pattern of growth, such as metaplasia or dysplasia.[8] However, metaplasia or dysplasia does not always progress to neoplasia and can occur in other conditions as well.[3] The word is from Ancient Greek νέος- neo 'new' and πλάσμα plasma 'formation, creation'.

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