Provinces of Nepal

The Provinces of Nepal (Nepali: नेपालका प्रदेशहरू; Nepālkā Pradeśharū) were formed on 20 September 2015 in accordance with Schedule 4 of the Constitution of Nepal. The seven provinces were formed by grouping the existing districts. The current system of seven provinces replaced an earlier system where Nepal was divided into 14 Administrative Zones which were grouped into five Development Regions.

Provinces of Nepal
नेपालका प्रदेशहरू
Nepal ka Pradesh haru
CategoryFederated state
LocationFederal Democratic Republic of Nepal
  • 20 September 2015
PopulationsSmallest: Karnali, 1,570,418
Largest: Bagmati, 5,529,452
AreasSmallest: Province No. 2, 9,661 square kilometres (3,730 sq mi)
Largest: Karnali, 27,984 square kilometres (10,805 sq mi)


A committee was formed to reconstruct the districts of Nepal on 23 December 1956 and after two weeks of duration a report was submitted to government. According to the Nepalko Jilla Prashasan Punargathanko Report, 2013 (A report of reconstruction of districts of Nepal, 1956), Nepal was first time divided into total 7 Kshetras (area).[1] These were the following Kshetras:

  1. Arun Kshetra
  2. Janakpur Kshetra
  3. Kathmandu Kshetra
  4. Gandak Kshetra
  5. Kapilavastu Kshetra
  6. Karnali Kshetra
  7. Mahakali Kshetra

In 1962, all Kshetras cancelled and the country restructured into 75 development districts and those districts were grouped into 14 zones.[2] In 1972 all 14 zones grouped into 4 development regions, later in 1981 rearranged the zones into 5 following development regions.

  1. Eastern Development Region
  2. Central Development Region
  3. Western Development Region
  4. Mid-Western Development Region
  5. Far-Western Development Region

The Provinces of Nepal were formed according to Schedule 4 of the Constitution of Nepal. The Seven provinces were formed by grouping the existing districts; two districts, namely Nawalparasi and Rukum, were split between two provinces. Each district has local units. Nepal includes six metropolises, 11 sub-metropolises, 276 municipal councils and 460 village councils.[3] The current system of seven provinces replaced an earlier system where Nepal was divided into 14 Administrative Zones which were grouped into five Development Regions.

In January 2016 the Government of Nepal announced temporary headquarters of the seven provinces.[4] According to Article 295 (2), the permanent names of the provinces will be determined by a two-thirds vote of the respective province's legislature.


The executive power of the provinces, pursuant to the Constitution and laws, is vested in the Council of Ministers of the province. The executive power of the province shall be exercised by the province Head in case of absence of the province Executive in a State of Emergency or enforcement of the Federal rule. Every province has a ceremonial Head as the representative of the Federal government. The President appoints a Governor for every province. The Governor exercises the rights and duties as to be performed specified in the constitution or laws. The Governor appoints the leader of the parliamentary party with the majority in the Provincial Assembly as the Chief Minister and the Council of Ministers are formed under the chairpersonship of the Chief Minister.


A Pradesh Sabha or Provincial Assembly is the unicameral legislative assembly for a federal province.[5] The term for the Provincial Assembly is five years, except when dissolved earlier.

Candidates for each constituency are chosen by the political parties or stand as independents. Each constituency elects one member under the first past the post system of election. Since Nepal uses a parallel voting system, voters cast another ballot to elect members through the party-list proportional representation. The current constitution specifies that sixty percent of the members should be elected from the first past the post system and forty percent through the party-list proportional representation system. Women should account for one-third of total members elected from each party and if one-third percentage are not elected, the party that fails to ensure so shall have to elect one-third of total number as women through the party-list proportional representation.[6]

A party with an overall majority (more seats than all other parties combined) following an election forms the government. If a party has no outright majority, parties can seek to form coalitions.

List of Provinces of Nepal

Province Capital Governor Chief Minister Districts Area
Human Development Index (2019) Map
Province No. 1BiratnagarSomnath AdhikariSher Dhan Rai1425,905 km24,534,9431750.580
Province No. 2JanakpurRajesh JhaMohammad Lalbabu Raut89,661 km25,404,1455500.510
Bagmati ProvinceHetaudaBishnu Prasad PrasainDormani Poudel1320,300 km25,529,4522720.661
Gandaki ProvincePokharaPrithvi Man Singh GurungKrishna Chandra Nepali[7]1121,504 km22,403,7571080.618
Lumbini ProvinceDeukhuriAmik SherchanShankar Pokharel1222,288 km24,499,2722170.563
Karnali ProvinceBirendranagarGovinda Prasad KalauniMahendra Bahadur Shahi1027,984 km21,570,418490.538
Sudurpashchim ProvinceGodawariGanga Prasad YadavTrilochan Bhatta919,915 km22,552,5171300.547
Nepal Kathmandu President
Bidhya Devi Bhandari
Prime Minister
Sher Bahadur Deuba
77 147,557 km2 26,494,504 180 0.587

See also


  1. नेपालको जिल्ला प्रशासन पुनर्गठनको रिपोर्ट, २०१३ (PDF).
  2. "Memorial Step of King Mahendra in 1st Poush 2017 BS". 13 December 2017. Retrieved 6 February 2018.
  3. Kathmandu Post (2017). "744 new local units come into effect". Kanntipur Publications Pvt. Ltd.
  4. "Govt fixes temporary state HQs, guvs". Kathmandu: Kathmandu Post. 2018.
  5. "CA approves ceremonial prez, bicameral legislature". Kanptipur Media Group. 16 September 2015. Retrieved 8 December 2017. Provincial parliaments will be unicameral. "The CA also approved a mixed electoral system for parliamentary election with 60 percent directly elected and 40 percent proportionally elected."
  6. "NEPAL: Diluted proportional electoral system". Scoop world. 16 October 2017. Retrieved 8 December 2017.
  7. "Krishna Chandra Nepali Pokharel of Nepali Congress appointed Gandaki chief minister". 12 June 2021. Retrieved 12 June 2021.

7. ^"" Govt sacks Gandaki and Sudurpaschim Governors