Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose International Airport


Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose International Airport (IATA: CCU, ICAO: VECC) is an international airport located in Dum Dum, West Bengal, India, serving the Kolkata metropolitan area. It is located approximately 15 kilometres (9.3 mi) from the city centre. The airport is locally known as Kolkata Airport and also was earlier known as Dum Dum Airport before being renamed in 1995 after Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose, a prominent leader of the Indian independence movement. Kolkata Airport is one of the oldest airports in India; it was opened in 1924.

Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose International Airport
Summary
Airport typePublic
Owner/OperatorAirports Authority of India
ServesKolkata metropolitan area
LocationJessore Road, Dum Dum, North 24 Parganas, Kolkata, West Bengal, India
Opened1924
Hub for
Focus city for
BuiltEarly 1900s as the Calcutta Aerodrome
Elevation AMSL5 m / 16 ft
Coordinates22°39′17″N 088°26′48″E
WebsiteKolkata Airport
Map
CCU
CCU
CCU
CCU
Runways
Direction Length Surface
m ft
01L/19R 3,190 10,498 Asphalt
01R/19L 3,627 11,900 Asphalt
Statistics (April 2020 - March 2021)
Passengers7,728,906 (64.9%)
Aircraft movements72,170 (56.5%)
Cargo tonnage104,953 (31.6%)
Source: AAI[1][2][3]

Spread over an area of 1,641 acres (664 ha), Kolkata Airport is the largest hub for air traffic in the eastern part of the country and one of two international airports operating in West Bengal, the other being Bagdogra. The airport handled almost 20 million passengers in the financial year 2017–18, making it the fifth-busiest airport in India in terms of passenger traffic after airports at Delhi, Mumbai, Bangalore and Hyderabad. The airport is a major centre for flights to Northeast India, Bangladesh, Bhutan, China, Southeast Asia and the Middle Eastern cities of Dubai, Abu Dhabi and Doha. In 2014 and 2015, Kolkata Airport won the title of Best Improved Airport in the Asia-Pacific region awarded by the Airport Council International. The airport is awarded as best airport by hygiene measures in Asia-Pacific in 2020 by Airports Council International.[4]

History


Subhas Chandra Bose at the airport in 1938

Early history

Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose International Airport was founded in the early 1900s as the Calcutta Aerodrome.[5] The airport traditionally served as a strategic stopover on the air route from North America and Europe to Indochina and Australia.[6] Dakota 3 was the first aircraft to land in the airport.[7] In 1924, KLM began scheduled stops at Calcutta, as part of their Amsterdam to Batavia (Jakarta) route.[8][9][10] The same year, a Royal Air Force aircraft landed in Calcutta as part of the first round-the-world expedition by any air force.[11][12][13]

The airport began as an open ground next to the Royal Artillery Armoury in Dum Dum.[13][14][15][16] Sir Stanley Jackson, Governor of Bengal, opened the Bengal Flying Club at Dum Dum/Calcutta aerodrome in February 1929.[17] In 1930, the airfield was made fit for use throughout the year,[18] and other airlines began to utilise the airport. Air Orient began scheduled stops as part of a Paris to Saigon route[19] and Imperial Airways began flights from London to Australia via Calcutta in 1933, thus drew many airlines to Calcutta airport.[10][20][21] Many pioneering flights passed through the airport, including Amelia Earhart's in 1937.[22][23][24]

Calcutta played an important role in the Second World War. In 1942, the United States Army Air Forces 7th Bombardment Group flew B-24 Liberator bombers from the airport on combat missions over Burma. The airfield was used as a cargo aerial port for the Air Transport Command and was also used as a communication centre for the Tenth Air Force.[25][13]

Post-independence

Passenger services grew after the Second World War. Calcutta became a destination for the world's first jet-powered passenger aircraft, the de Havilland Comet, on a British Overseas Airways Corporation (BOAC) route to London.[12][26][27] Furthermore, in 1964 Indian Airlines introduced the first Indian domestic jet service, using Caravelle jets on the Calcutta–Delhi route.[28] Between the 1940s and 1960s, the airport was served by several major airlines including Aeroflot,[29] Air France,[30] Alitalia,[31] Cathay Pacific,[32] Japan Airlines,[33] Philippine Airlines,[34] KLM,[35] Lufthansa,[36] Pan Am,[37] Qantas,[38] Swissair[35] and SAS.[39]

Royal Nepal Airlines at Dum Dum Airport in 1974

Due to the introduction of longer-haul aircraft and the poor political climate of Calcutta during the 1960s, several airlines discontinued their service to the airport. The 1971 Bangladesh Liberation War saw a large increase of both refugees and disease in Calcutta, causing more airlines to cease services to the city. In 1975, the airport opened the first dedicated cargo terminal in India.[40]

The 1990s saw new growth for Calcutta airport, as the Indian aviation industry saw the arrival of new airlines such as Jet Airways and Air Sahara. A new domestic terminal named Terminal 2 was opened in 1995 making the international one Terminal 1, and the airport was renamed in honour of Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose. In 2000, a new international arrival hall was opened.[7][41]

Modernisation

One of the many aerobridges that were imported from Indonesia
Outside view of the integrated terminal in 2013

2005 saw the growth of low-cost carriers in the Indian aviation sector, with new airlines including SpiceJet, IndiGo and Kingfisher Airlines. This led to a dramatic rise in passenger numbers at the airport. Overcrowding in both terminals led to the implementation of a comprehensive modernisation plan for the airport.[42][43][44]

Work included an expansion of runway 01L/19R, rapid-exit taxiways and parking bays. The runway was extended by 400 metres (0.25 mi) (2790 metres to 3190 metres) on the northern side and 1,000 feet (300 m) on the southern side and was fitted with CAT-I facilities for night use. A 119-year-old mosque that lies 30 metres from the runway' northern end prohibits further expansion in this direction.[45] The longer runway, 01R/19L, was upgraded from CAT-I to CAT-II ILS status to allow landings in poor visibility. In August 2014, it was announced that the instrument landing system of the primary runway would be upgraded to CAT-IIIb. This allows flights to operate till visibility drops below 50 metres. The secondary runway would be upgraded to CAT-II. The 120 crore (US$17 million) upgrading work would start from February 2015 and would be completed by the end of 2015.[46][47]

The modernisation plan included some improvements of the airport's existing terminals, including the addition of extra ticketing counters, check-in kiosks and cafes to the domestic terminal in 2009. However, the need to replace the airport's terminals entirely led to plans for a new integrated terminal, known as T2 to differentiate it from the older domestic block, to serve both international and domestic destinations. A Thai-based company, the Italian-Thai Development (ITD) Corporation (ITD-ITDCem JV, a consortium of ITD and ITD Cementation) and the 125-year-old iconic Project Management Consultant–Parsons Brinckerhoff (PB) was hired with Delhi-based designer Sikka Associates to construct the building. Construction commenced in November 2008, and T2 was inaugurated on 20 January 2013 after overshooting the previous deadlines of July 2011 and August 2012.[48][49] The former airport hotel 'Ashok' was demolished to give way for two new five-star luxury hotels and a shopping mall in its place.[41][50]

Commercial operations were intended to start on 23 January 2013, the 116th birth anniversary of Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose.[51] However, the shift to the new terminal was only completed on 16 March 2013.[52] Airports Council International named it the best improved airport in the Asia-Pacific region in 2014 and 2015.[53][54][55][56]

Infrastructure


Runways

A view of the Runway 01R/19L.

The airport has two parallel runways, The primary runway 01R/19L has a capacity of 35 flights per hour and the secondary runway 01L/19R has a capacity of 15 flights per hour. The secondary runway is used as a taxiway and the main runway is mainly used. When the primary runway is shut down for maintenance, the secondary runway is used.[57][58]

Runways at NSCBI Airport
Runway Number Length Width Approach Lights/ILS
01L/19R 3,190 m (10,470 ft) 46 m (151 ft) CAT I / CAT II
01R/19L 3,627 m (11,900 ft) 46 m (151 ft) CAT III-B / CAT II

Hangars and ground services

Air India operates hangars at the airport, while Bharat Petroleum and Indian Oil act as fuellers. Catering facilities are owned by Taj-Sats and Oberoi Flight Services.[59][60]

Terminals

Birds eye view of the integrated terminal

The airport's new integrated terminal T2 is spread over 233,000 m2 (2,510,000 sq ft) and can handle 25 million passengers annually, compared to the previous terminals' capacity of five million. The terminal is an L-shaped structure, containing six levels. It contains 128 check-in counters that utilise CUTE (Common User Terminal Equipment) technology and has 78 immigration counters and twelve customs counters.[61] Passenger lounges are provided by Air India. The terminal is equipped with 18 aerobridges and a further 57 remote parking bays. There are plans to construct an 18-foot bronze statue of Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose in the integrated terminal complex.[62][63]

Check-in area of the integrated terminal

Kolkata's old international and domestic terminals closed permanently when the integrated terminal opened. However, the old international terminal may be used for future hajj services and is currently under renovation, and the domestic terminal may be used by regional airlines. An earlier proposal of continuing low-cost carrier operations from the existing domestic terminal has been shelved due to the need to fully utilise the new integrated terminal's capacity, making it the first airport in India to shift even its low-cost domestic airlines to the new integrated building upon completion.[52][64][65]

In the financial year from April 2011 to March 2012, Kolkata Airport served 10.3 million passengers, 85% which were travelling domestically.[66] The withdrawal of Lufthansa's service to Frankfurt in March 2012 left Kolkata with no direct connections beyond Asia.[67] However, other international operations increased in 2012.[66] The new terminal has attracted some airlines to expand their route networks to include Kolkata.[68][69]

Post security area of the integrated terminal

In September 2012, the Airports Authority of India upgraded the airport's cargo-handling capacity, enabling it to cater for the demand until 2015–16. There has been a 25 per cent growth in international cargo movement to and from Kolkata Airport and a 15 per cent increase in outward transit. Automobile parts accounted for the bulk of the growth in the movement of cargo from the city to other countries. In November 2008 the first Centre for Perishable Cargo (CPC) in West Bengal was opened at the airport. The CPC has an area of 742.5 m2 (7,992 sq ft) and an annual storage capacity of 12,000 million tonnes. The CPC had been undergoing trials that started in June 2008 and were built with a 6.75 crore (US$950,000) grant-in-aid from the Agricultural and Processed Food Products Export Development Authority (APEDA) part of the Commerce Ministry.[70] The volume of export was 21,683 tonnes in 2008–09, during the current fiscal more than 23,042 tonnes of cargo were handled by the airport. Similarly, the volume of import cargo increased from 16,863 tonnes to 18,733 tonnes, increasing over ten per cent during the same period. However, in 2008–09 the total volume of cargo handled by the airport declined by 4.8% from the previous year. On 3 June 2019, Singapore Airlines operated the Airport's first Airbus A350 service from Singapore to Kolkata, enhancing the weekly seat capacity.[71]

Expansion


The construction of the new terminal, as well as runway expansion, marked the end of Phase I of the project. AAI officials have announced that they are prepared to execute Phase 2 of the Kolkata Airport expansion plan. This involves the construction of a new ATC Tower to provide controllers with a better view of the planes at the new terminal. The building will be accompanied by a 4-storey office complex.[72][73] Initially, a 112m tower was proposed, but the height has been revised multiple times and in 2017 it was decreased to 51.4m.[74] The under construction tower is expected to be complete by 2020.[75]

ATC complex Kolkata Airport

New expansion plan

The new terminal inaugurated in 2013 is on the verge of reaching its annual capacity of 24 million passengers four years ahead of the initial projections. To tackle this, AAI has planned to upgrade and expand the airport and increase its passenger capacity by 100% to handle up to 40 million passengers annually. The new ₹1,000 crore expansion plan will be carried out in 2 phases. The number of parking bays will be increased to 105 by 2024.[76][77][78]

Phase 1

Airport officials said as per the first phase of the expansion plan, the old terminal will be demolished and a 7000 sq. m new building will be constructed in the area. The building will be linked with the existing terminal of the airport with the help of walkalators and would also have walk-in gates on the ground floor. This building will be used only for boarding and de-boarding of passengers. Passengers arriving in the old terminal would take the connecting bridge to the new terminal and then leave the airport. This would reduce peak-hour congestion when several flights do not get enough apron space. This would immediately increase the passenger capacity by a few million and would solve the space crunch for the time being. The phase 1 expansion plan has been sanctioned by AAI.[77][79]

Phase 2

A master plan has already been made for the construction of a third terminal that will increase the airport's passenger capacity to 45 million. The plan has received the first nod from the aviation ministry. The new third terminal will come up north of the current integrated terminal. The Air Traffic Navigation Building and the old international terminal that are situated beyond the old domestic terminal will be demolished to make way for the new terminal building. The new terminal is expected to house only domestic flights while a larger portion of the existing integrated terminal will be allotted to international flights. The construction of new hangars and bays is also part of the current expansion plan.[79][77]

Airlines and destinations


Passenger

AirlinesDestinations
AirAsia India Bagdogra, Bangalore, Delhi, Guwahati, Hyderabad, Imphal, Mumbai
Air India Agartala, Aizawl, Bagdogra, Bangalore, Chennai, Delhi, Dibrugarh, Dimapur, Guwahati, Hyderabad, Imphal, Mumbai, Port Blair
Alliance Air Bhubaneswar, Guwahati, Jharsuguda, Lilabari, Pasighat, Ranchi (resumes 11 August 2021)[80]
FlyBig Rupsi[81]
Go First[82] Bagdogra, Bangalore, Bhubaneswar, Delhi, Guwahati, Hyderabad, Lucknow, Mumbai
IndiGo Agartala, Ahmedabad, Aizawl, Amritsar, Bagdogra, Bangalore, Bhubaneswar, Chandigarh, Chennai, Coimbatore, Darbhanga,[83] Delhi, Dibrugarh, Dimapur, Gaya, Goa, Gorakhpur, Guwahati, Hyderabad, Imphal, Jorhat, Kozhikode, Lucknow, Mumbai, Nagpur, Patna, Port Blair, Pune, Raipur, Ranchi, Shillong, Silchar, Surat
SpiceJet Bagdogra, Chennai, Darbhanga,[84] Delhi, Guwahati, Gwalior, Jharsuguda, Kanpur (begins 31 October 2021),[84] Pakyong[85][84]
Vistara Delhi, Mumbai[86]

Cargo

AirlinesDestinations
Blue Dart AviationAhmedabad, Chennai, Bangalore, Delhi, Hyderabad, Mumbai[87]
Cathay Pacific CargoDelhi, Hong Kong[88]
Qatar Airways CargoDoha[89]
SpiceXpress

Bangalore, Chennai, Visakhapatnam, Hyderabad, Surat[90]

Statistics


As of the financial year 2019–20, Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose International Airport was again the fifth-busiest airport in India in terms of the total number of passengers served, which was about 22 million, 0.6% increase from the previous year. Out of which, 19 million passengers were domestic and 3 million were international.[91] The cargo traffic saw a decline of 1.1% from its previous year, with 153,468 metric tonnes of cargo.[92]

See source Wikidata query and sources.

Passenger and Cargo Traffic (2009–2020)
Year Passengers Change Cargo (MT) Change Ref
International Domestic Total
2009–10 11,87,160 68,58,564 80,45,724 1,10,256 [93][94]
2010–11 14,28,086 82,03,586 96,31,672 19.7% 1,29,957 17.9% [93][94]
2011–12 15,66,102 87,37,889 1,03,03,991 7.0% 1,25,593 3.4% [95][96]
2012–13 16,44,339 84,24,316 1,00,68,655 2.3% 1,23,491 1.7% [97][98]
2013–14 17,65,013 83,35,219 1,01,00,232 0.7% 1,29,782 6.2% [99][100]
2014–15 19,26,562 89,90,107 1,09,16,669 8.1% 1,36,699 5.3% [101][102]
2015–16 22,17,473 1,02,03,771 1,24,21,244 13.8% 1,39,679 2.2% [103][104]
2016–17 22,30,071 1,35,89,468 1,58,19,539 24.0% 1,52, 415,643 90% [105][106]
2017–18 25,86,775 1,73,05,749 1,98,92,524 25.7% 1,63,323,457 7.2% [107][108]
2018–19 27,86,805 1,90,90,545 2,18,77,350 10.0% 1,55,232,360 5.0% [109][110]
2019–20 29,39,32 1,90,76 2,20,15 0.6% 1,53,468,654 1.1% [91][92]


Connectivity


Roads

The airport has a well-established facility of prepaid taxis and air-conditioned buses connecting it to the city centre. As part of the larger modernisation programme, a flyover at Nagerbazar and an entry ramp on VIP Road have also been constructed. A 2 kilometres (1.2 mi) flyover from Kestopur to Raghunathpur (near Tegharia) was built to speed up airport-bound traffic. These reduce journey times to the airport.[111][112] Parking facilities at the new terminal include two underground parking levels accommodating 3000 cars, as well as an outdoor car parking which can handle an additional 2000 cars.[113][114][115]

Rail

Under construction Biman Bandar metro station

The airport was connected to the Kolkata Suburban Railway system's circular line branch. The 4 kilometres (2.5 mi) long elevated track connected the airport's Biman Bandar railway station with Dum Dum Cantonment railway station, passing Jessore Road. Electric multiple unit rolling stocks served the line. However, due to poor patronage and plans to replace it with metro service, the railway line was closed in September 2016 to facilitate construction of the new lines.[116][117] The remaining infrastructure was dismantled in early 2020 to make space for road upgrades.[118]

Two new Kolkata Metro lines are planned to connect to the airport: one from Noapara (Kolkata Metro Line 4), and the other from New Garia (Kolkata Metro Line 6).[119] Both lines will converge at the Biman Bandar metro station. An American aviation planning firm has drafted a plan for a futuristic multi-modal transport hub at Kolkata Airport modelled on similar projects in European airports.[120]

Accidents and incidents


  • 2 May 1953: BOAC Flight 783 de Havilland Comet bound for Delhi crashed after takeoff from Calcutta Airport with the loss of 43 lives. Parts of the aircraft were found spread over an area of eight square miles, near Jugalgari, a village some 25 miles north-west of Calcutta, suggesting disintegration before impact with the ground.[121]
  • 12 June 1968: A Pan-Am Flight (N798PA, named Clipper Caribbean) Boeing 707-321C struck a tree 1128m short of the runway during a night-time visual approach in rain. The aircraft subsequently crashed and caught fire. The fuselage remained largely intact, although the aircraft's landing gear broke off. Out of the 10 crew and 53 passengers aboard, 1 crew member and 5 passengers suffered fatal injuries due to the fire.[122][123]

See also


References


 This article incorporates public domain material from the Air Force Historical Research Agency website http://www.afhra.af.mil/.

  1. "Annexure III - Passenger Data" (PDF). www.aai.aero. Retrieved 19 May 2021.
  2. "Annexure II - Aircraft Movement Data" (PDF). www.aai.aero. Retrieved 19 May 2021.
  3. "Annexure IV - Freight Movement Data" (PDF). www.aai.aero. Retrieved 19 May 2021.
  4. "2020 - Best Hygiene Measures". ACI World. Retrieved 3 March 2021.
  5. "History". Netaji Subash Chandra Bose International Airport. Archived from the original on 9 February 2020. Retrieved 9 July 2020.
  6. "The Lost Hub: India's Kolkata Airport". Simple Flying. 4 June 2020. Archived from the original on 22 June 2020. Retrieved 14 July 2020.
  7. "History of Kolkata Airport". nscbiairport.org. Archived from the original on 12 October 2011. Retrieved 14 July 2020.
  8. "Amsterdam- Batavia Flight". Flight Global. 20 November 1924. Retrieved 18 September 2011.[dead link]
  9. "Blue World". iFly KLM Magazine. Archived from the original on 14 July 2020. Retrieved 14 July 2020.
  10. "KNILM Time Table". timetableimages.com. 5 November 1935. Archived from the original on 17 December 2018. Retrieved 14 July 2020.
  11. "Amsterdam- Round-The-World Flights". Flight Global. 22 May 1924. Archived from the original on 6 March 2012. Retrieved 18 September 2011.
  12. "5 Facts Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose International Airport". AirportsIndia | Magazine. 21 November 2018. Archived from the original on 14 July 2020. Retrieved 14 July 2020.
  13. PacificWrecks.com. "Pacific Wrecks". pacificwrecks.com. Archived from the original on 29 June 2020. Retrieved 14 July 2020.
  14. "Dum Dum – Cathedral Relief Service". Archived from the original on 14 July 2020. Retrieved 14 July 2020.
  15. "NORTH 24 PARGANAS - WEST BENGAL TOURISM". www.wbtourismgov.in. Archived from the original on 8 June 2019. Retrieved 7 December 2019.
  16. "esq | air ministry | flying officer | 1920 | 0415 | Flight Archive". 30 December 2013. Archived from the original on 30 December 2013. Retrieved 14 July 2020.
  17. "aero club | aeroplane club | flying club | 1929 | 0480 | Flight Archive". Flight Archive. 6 March 2012. Archived from the original on 6 March 2012. Retrieved 9 July 2020.
  18. "State of Air Transport in the British Empire". Flight Global. 29 August 1930. Archived from the original on 6 March 2012. Retrieved 18 September 2011.
  19. "1930 Histoire d'Air Orient". Archived from the original on 17 August 2011. Retrieved 18 September 2011.
  20. "Birth of Aviation and Its Arrival in India" (PDF). shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in. Archived (PDF) from the original on 14 July 2020. Retrieved 14 July 2020.
  21. "Global networks before globalisation: imperial airways and the development of long-haul air routes". Loughborough University. 2007. S2CID 126716007. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  22. "Amelia Earhart's Circumnavigation Attempt". Tripline.net. Archived from the original on 26 October 2011. Retrieved 18 September 2011.
  23. Alikhan, Anvar. "The Indian adventures of Amelia Earhart before she disappeared into oblivion". Scroll.in. Archived from the original on 26 September 2020. Retrieved 14 July 2020.
  24. "Amelia in Calcutta". www.ameliaearhartmuseum.org. 17 June 1937. Archived from the original on 29 December 2016. Retrieved 14 July 2020.
  25. Maurer, Maurer (1983). Air Force Combat Units of World War II. Maxwell AFB, Alabama: Office of Air Force History. ISBN 0-89201-092-4.
  26. "India as seen through vintage airline posters". Condé Nast Traveller India. 7 June 2016. Archived from the original on 21 July 2020. Retrieved 9 July 2020.
  27. "Civil Aircraft Accident Report of the Court Investigation on the Accident to Comet G-ALYV on 2nd May, 1953" (PDF). Ministry of Civil Aviation. 2 May 1953. Archived from the original (PDF) on 15 April 2015. Retrieved 9 July 2020 via Federal Aviation Administration.
  28. "1965 - 1969". Indian Airmails. Archived from the original on 21 July 2020. Retrieved 9 July 2020.
  29. "Image: su57-04.jpg, (2391 × 1449 px)". timetableimages.com. Archived from the original on 18 May 2015. Retrieved 4 October 2015.
  30. "Air France". timetableimages.com. Archived from the original on 6 October 2015. Retrieved 9 May 2015.
  31. "Image: az61-11.jpg, (2304 × 1325 px)". timetableimages.com. Archived from the original on 3 March 2016. Retrieved 4 October 2015.
  32. "Image: cathay19.jpg, (570 × 720 px)". timetableimages.com. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 4 October 2015.
  33. "JAL - Japan Air Lines". timetableimages.com. Archived from the original on 6 October 2015. Retrieved 9 May 2015.
  34. "Philippine 1949 Timetable". timetableimages.com. Archived from the original on 3 March 2016. Retrieved 4 October 2015.
  35. "Image: sr51-06.jpg, (2420 × 1222 px)". timetableimages.com. Archived from the original on 18 May 2015. Retrieved 4 October 2015.
  36. "Lufthansa timetable May 1, 1960". timetableimages.com. Archived from the original on 3 March 2016. Retrieved 4 October 2015.
  37. "PanAm Schedule". timetableimages.com. Archived from the original on 18 May 2015. Retrieved 4 October 2015.
  38. "Did You Know About The Old Kangaroo Route?". www.outlookindia.com/outlooktraveller/. Archived from the original on 15 July 2020. Retrieved 14 July 2020.
  39. "SAS – Scandinavian Airlines System". Timetableimages.com. Archived from the original on 2 November 2012. Retrieved 11 February 2013.
  40. "気になる薄毛の事". nscbiairport.org. Archived from the original on 19 May 2015. Retrieved 9 May 2015.
  41. "Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose (Kolkata) International Airport". Airport Technology. Archived from the original on 15 July 2020. Retrieved 14 July 2020.
  42. "Overview of the Airline Industry in India" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 17 July 2020. Retrieved 14 July 2020.
  43. "Kolkata Airport modernisation project commences". CAPA - Centre for Aviation. Archived from the original on 14 July 2020. Retrieved 14 July 2020.
  44. Law, Abhishek. "Kolkata airport to turn swanky with modernisation". @businessline. Archived from the original on 14 July 2020. Retrieved 14 July 2020.
  45. Mouparna Bandyopadhyay (1 June 2008). "An expressindia article regarding the mosque built within the airport complex". ExpressIndia. Archived from the original on 9 October 2012. Retrieved 11 February 2013.
  46. Sanjay, Mandal (14 August 2014). "Airport lands big CAT to fight fog". The Telegraph. Archived from the original on 19 August 2014. Retrieved 16 August 2014.
  47. "Fog, rain won't hold up flights any more". TNN. 14 August 2014. Archived from the original on 16 August 2014. Retrieved 16 August 2014.
  48. "New terminal to boost tourism". Financial Express. 1 May 2012. Archived from the original on 23 May 2014. Retrieved 17 May 2012.
  49. "New airport terminal to be delayed". The Times of India. 15 December 2011. Archived from the original on 1 July 2012. Retrieved 17 May 2012.
  50. "Airports Authority of India". Aai.aero. Archived from the original on 17 January 2013. Retrieved 11 February 2013.
  51. "Kolkata airport's new terminal inaugurated". Business Standard. 21 January 2013. Archived from the original on 27 January 2021. Retrieved 21 January 2013.
  52. "Shift complete, old terminals shut down". Times of India. 10 December 2019. Archived from the original on 10 December 2019. Retrieved 14 July 2020.
  53. "Which airports offer the world's best customer service?". CNN. 17 February 2015. Archived from the original on 26 February 2015. Retrieved 1 March 2015.
  54. Desk, India TV News (21 February 2014). "Kolkata wins most improved airport award in Asia-Pacific". www.indiatvnews.com. Archived from the original on 15 July 2020. Retrieved 14 July 2020.
  55. "Kolkata Airport wins best improved airport award". Business Standard India. Press Trust of India. 10 June 2014. Archived from the original on 14 July 2020. Retrieved 14 July 2020.
  56. "Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose International Airport - a clean and green facility in Kolkata - The Economic Times". The Economic Times. Archived from the original on 27 January 2021. Retrieved 14 July 2020.
  57. "VECC - Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose Airport | SkyVector". skyvector.com. Archived from the original on 2 March 2020. Retrieved 9 July 2020.
  58. "VECC AD 2.1 Aerodrome Location Indicator and Name" (PDF). aim-india.aai.aero. 25 May 2017. Archived from the original (PDF) on 12 July 2020. Retrieved 10 July 2020.
  59. "About us | Tajsats". www.tajsats.com. Archived from the original on 12 July 2020. Retrieved 9 July 2020.
  60. "Oberoi Aviation | Oberoi Hotels & Resorts". Oeroi Aviation. 21 June 2020. Archived from the original on 21 June 2020. Retrieved 9 July 2020.
  61. Basak, Probal (28 April 2012). "World class, but global takers slip away". Business Standard India. Archived from the original on 29 January 2020. Retrieved 7 December 2019 via Business Standard.
  62. "Kolkata airport finds place for 'forgotten' hero". The Times of India. 18 October 2010. Archived from the original on 3 January 2013. Retrieved 11 February 2013.
  63. Oppili, P.; Sekar, Sunitha (26 October 2010). "Second lot of aerobridges for Chennai International Airport arrive at Kolkata port". The Hindu. Chennai, India. Archived from the original on 29 December 2012. Retrieved 11 February 2013.
  64. "All flights from new terminal by March". The Times of India. 4 May 2013. Archived from the original on 4 May 2013. Retrieved 14 July 2020.
  65. Gupta, Jayanta (5 March 2013). "From March 15, all flights from new terminal in Kolkata". The Times of India. Archived from the original on 28 October 2020. Retrieved 14 July 2020.
  66. "Kolkata Airport: New terminal opens this week; Domestic capacity shrinks". 13 March 2013. Archived from the original on 17 March 2013. Retrieved 16 March 2013.
  67. "Lufthansa flies out of Kolkata skies". The Times of India. 26 March 2012. Archived from the original on 29 December 2013. Retrieved 16 March 2013.
  68. "Four international airlines seek flight to new Kolkata airport". 28 September 2012. Archived from the original on 7 October 2012. Retrieved 27 September 2012.
  69. "Three international airlines show interest in Kolkata". 28 September 2012. Archived from the original on 21 December 2012. Retrieved 12 December 2012.
  70. A Freshnews article about the Perishable Cargo centre Archived 29 July 2013 at the Wayback Machine
  71. Himatsingka, Anuradha (25 April 2019). "Singapore Airlines to introduce Airbus A350 aircraft in Kolkata". The Economic Times. Archived from the original on 31 January 2020. Retrieved 17 June 2019.
  72. Share on FacebookShare on Twitter (14 May 2013). "Times of India. 14 May 2013. Retrieved 8 July 2013". The Times of India. Archived from the original on 8 July 2013. Retrieved 26 February 2017.
  73. "Iconic tower project back on board". Times of India. 10 December 2019. Archived from the original on 10 December 2019. Retrieved 9 July 2020.
  74. Niyogi, Subhro; Banerjee, Tamaghna (18 February 2017). "Controllers furious over decision to slash ATC tower height by half". The Times of India. Archived from the original on 20 February 2017. Retrieved 9 July 2020.
  75. "Kolkata airport to get new ATC by 2020". The Times of India. 26 November 2019. Archived from the original on 6 December 2019. Retrieved 9 July 2020.
  76. Niyogi, Subhro; Banerjee, Tamaghna (5 April 2019). "Rs 1K crore expansion plan for Kolkata airport". The Times of India. Archived from the original on 27 January 2021. Retrieved 13 July 2020.
  77. "Seal on Calcutta airport expansion plan". www.telegraphindia.com. Archived from the original on 14 July 2020. Retrieved 13 July 2020.
  78. "105 parking bays, extended runway at Kolkata airport by 2024". The Times of India. 8 December 2019. Archived from the original on 1 September 2020. Retrieved 13 July 2020.
  79. "Kolkata eyes 40 million flyers annually in next 4 years". Timesofindia.indiatimes.com. 14 June 2017. Archived from the original on 28 September 2017. Retrieved 8 April 2018.
  80. www.tribuneindia.com/news/nation/alliance-air-to-operate-flights-on-kolkata-ranchi-bhubaneswar-route-from-august-11-290588
  81. "Air connectivity boost under UDAN! Rupsi Airport in Assam to start operations from Saturday". www.financialexpress.com. Retrieved 7 May 2021.
  82. "Budget airline GoAir rebrands as Go First".
  83. "IndiGo Airlines to start flights from Darbhanga on July 5". www.jagran.com. Retrieved 5 June 2021.
  84. "SpiceJet flight schedule". SpiceJet. Retrieved 15 January 2021.
  85. "Spice Jet flight resumes". United News of India. Retrieved 13 March 2021.
  86. "Vistara Flight Shedule". www.airvistara.com. Retrieved 10 May 2021.
  87. "Welcome to Blue Dart Aviation Ltd". bluedartaviation.com. Archived from the original on 28 July 2020. Retrieved 4 August 2020.
  88. Cathay Pacific Cargo. "Cathay Pacific Adds Kolkata to Freighter Network" (PDF). www.cathaypacificcargo.com. Archived (PDF) from the original on 8 September 2015. Retrieved 4 August 2020.
  89. "Passenger freighter network July 2020" (PDF). qrcargo.com. 20 July 2020. Archived from the original (PDF) on 18 January 2021. Retrieved 4 August 2020.
  90. "spicexpress". www.spicexpress.com. Archived from the original on 24 September 2020. Retrieved 4 August 2020.
  91. "Total passengers (Intl+Dom)" (PDF). aai.aero. Archived from the original (PDF) on 1 May 2018. Retrieved 12 July 2020.
  92. "Total (Intl+Dom.) freight" (PDF). aai.aero. Archived from the original (PDF) on 1 May 2018. Retrieved 12 July 2020.
  93. "Traffic statistics - passengers (Int'l+Dom.) March 2011" (PDF). aai.aero. Archived from the original (PDF) on 16 July 2020. Retrieved 12 July 2020.
  94. "Traffic statistics - freight (Int'l+Dom.) March 2011" (PDF). aai.aero. Archived from the original (PDF) on 11 July 2020. Retrieved 12 July 2020.
  95. "Traffic statistics - Passengers (Int'l+Dom.) March 2012" (PDF). aai.aero. Archived from the original (PDF) on 16 July 2020. Retrieved 13 July 2020.
  96. "Traffic statistics - Freight (Int'l+Dom.) March 2012" (PDF). aai.aero. Archived from the original (PDF) on 16 July 2020. Retrieved 12 July 2020.
  97. "Traffic statistics. March 2013" (PDF). aai.aero. Archived from the original (PDF) on 16 July 2020. Retrieved 12 July 2020.
  98. "Traffic statistics - Freight (Int'l+Dom.) March 2013" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 19 April 2018. Retrieved 12 July 2020.
  99. "Traffic statistics - Passengers (Int'l+Dom.) March 2014" (PDF). aai.aero. Archived from the original (PDF) on 20 April 2018. Retrieved 13 July 2020.
  100. "Traffic statistics - Freight (Int'l+Dom.) March 2014" (PDF). aai.aero. Archived from the original (PDF) on 20 April 2018. Retrieved 13 July 2020.
  101. "Passengers (Int'l+Dom.) March 2015" (PDF). aai.aero. Archived from the original (PDF) on 1 March 2018. Retrieved 13 July 2020.
  102. "Freight (Int'l+Dom.) March 2015" (PDF). aai.aero. Archived from the original (PDF) on 19 April 2018. Retrieved 13 July 2020.
  103. "Passengers (Int'l+Dom.) March 2016" (PDF). aai.aero. Archived from the original (PDF) on 19 May 2018. Retrieved 13 July 2020.
  104. "Freight (Int'l+Dom.) March 2016" (PDF). aai.aero. Archived from the original (PDF) on 20 April 2018. Retrieved 13 July 2020.
  105. "Passengers (Int'l+Dom.) March 2017" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2 February 2018. Retrieved 13 July 2020.
  106. "Traffic statistics - Freight (Int'l+Dom.) March 2017" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 1 March 2018.
  107. "Passengers (Int'l+Dom.) March 2018" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 1 May 2018. Retrieved 13 July 2020.
  108. "Traffic statistics - Freight (Int'l+Dom.) March 2018" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 1 May 2018. Retrieved 13 July 2020.
  109. "Passengers (Int'l+Dom.) March 2019" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 April 2019. Retrieved 13 July 2020.
  110. "Total Freight (Intl+Dom) March 2019" (PDF). aai.aero. Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 April 2019. Retrieved 13 July 2020.
  111. "Nagerbazar flyover finally opens to public". The Times of India. 25 March 2012. Archived from the original on 6 December 2020. Retrieved 9 July 2020.
  112. Chakraborti, Suman (7 March 2015). "Kolkata's VIP Road flyover to be opened tomorrow". The Times of India. Archived from the original on 20 February 2019. Retrieved 9 July 2020.
  113. "Kolkata International Airport Parking and Charges - IndiaAirport.com". indiaairport.com. Archived from the original on 9 July 2020. Retrieved 9 July 2020.
  114. "Park & Fly". aai.aero. Archived from the original on 15 July 2020. Retrieved 14 July 2020.
  115. "Transport". aai.aero. Archived from the original on 16 July 2020. Retrieved 14 July 2020.
  116. "Services End on Kolkata's Circular Railway to Facilitate Metro's Construction". The Metro Rail Guy. The Metro Rail Guy. 13 October 2016. Archived from the original on 23 December 2018. Retrieved 23 December 2018.
  117. Banerjee, Tamaghna (18 January 2020). "Defunct Circular Rail track dismantled". The Times of India. Archived from the original on 13 December 2020. Retrieved 9 July 2020.
  118. Banerjee, Tamaghna. "Defunct Circular Rail track dismantled". The Times of India. Archived from the original on 13 December 2020. Retrieved 14 July 2020.
  119. "The Telegraph - Calcutta (Kolkata) - Metro - Rail set to take over East-West". telegraphindia.com. Archived from the original on 1 June 2015. Retrieved 9 May 2015.
  120. Niyogi, Subhro (7 November 2019). "US firm drafts plan for futuristic transport hub at Kolkata airport". The Times of India. Archived from the original on 29 December 2019. Retrieved 8 November 2019.
  121. "Loss of a Comet". Flight Global. 8 May 1953. Archived from the original on 6 March 2012. Retrieved 18 September 2011.
  122. "CAA Paper 2002" (PDF). Civil Aviation Authority. Archived from the original (PDF) on 6 June 2011. Retrieved 18 September 2011.
  123. "ASN Aircraft accident Boeing 707-321C N798PA Calcutta-Dum Dum Airport (CCU)". Aviation Safety Network. 15 October 2017. Archived from the original on 15 October 2017. Retrieved 9 July 2020.