New Brunswick

New Brunswick (French: Nouveau-Brunswick, pronounced [nuvo bʁœnswik], locally [nuvo bʁɔnzwɪk]) is one of the thirteen provinces and territories of Canada. It is one of the three Maritime provinces and one of the four Atlantic provinces. It is the only province with both French and English as its official languages.

New Brunswick
Latin: Spem reduxit[1]
("Hope restored")
Coordinates: 46°30′00″N 66°00′00″W
ConfederationJuly 1, 1867 (1st, with Ontario, Quebec, Nova Scotia)
Largest cityMoncton
Largest metroGreater Moncton
  TypeConstitutional monarchy
  BodyGovernment of New Brunswick
  Lieutenant GovernorBrenda Murphy
  PremierBlaine Higgs (Progressive Conservatives)
LegislatureLegislative Assembly of New Brunswick
Federal representationParliament of Canada
House seats10 of 338 (3%)
Senate seats10 of 105 (9.5%)
  Total72,907 km2 (28,150 sq mi)
  Land71,450 km2 (27,590 sq mi)
  Water1,458 km2 (563 sq mi)  2%
Area rank11th
 0.7% of Canada
  Total747,101 [2]
(2021 Q2)
783,721 [3]
  Density10.46/km2 (27.1/sq mi)
Demonym(s)New Brunswicker
FR: Néo-Brunswickois(e)
Official languages[4]
  Total (2017)C$36.088 billion[5]
  Per capitaC$42,606 (11th)
  HDI (2019)0.898[6]Very high (12th)
Time zoneUTC-04:00 (Atlantic)
  Summer (DST)UTC-03:00 (Atlantic DST)
Canadian postal abbr.
Postal code prefix
ISO 3166 codeCA-NB
FlowerPurple violet
TreeBalsam fir
BirdBlack-capped chickadee
Rankings include all provinces and territories

New Brunswick is bordered by Quebec to the north, Nova Scotia to the east, the Gulf of Saint Lawrence to the northeast, the Bay of Fundy to the southeast, and the U.S. state of Maine to the west. New Brunswick is about 83% forested and its northern half is occupied by the Appalachians.[7] The province's climate is continental with snowy winters and temperate summers.

New Brunswick has a surface area of 72,908 km2 (28,150 sq mi) and 747,101 inhabitants (2016).[8] Atypically for Canada, only about half of the population lives in urban areas. New Brunswick's largest cities are Moncton and Saint John, while its capital is Fredericton.

In 1969, New Brunswick passed the Official Languages Act which began recognizing French as an official language, along with English.[9] New Brunswickers have the right to receive provincial government services in the official language of their choice.[10] About 23 of the population are anglophone and 13 are francophone. New Brunswick is home to most of the cultural region of Acadia and most Acadians. New Brunswick's variety of French is called Acadian French and 7 regional accents can be found.[11]

New Brunswick was first inhabited by First Nations like the Miꞌkmaq and Maliseet. In 1604, Acadia, the first New France colony, was founded with the creation of Port-Royal. For 150 years afterwards, Acadia changed hands a few times due to numerous conflicts between France and the United Kingdom. From 1755 to 1764, the British deported Acadians en masse, an event known as the Great Upheaval. This, along with the Treaty of Paris, solidified Acadia as British property. In 1784, following the arrival of many loyalists fleeing the American Revolution, the colony of New Brunswick was officially created, separating it from what is now Nova Scotia.[12] In the early 1800s, New Brunswick prospered and the population grew rapidly. In 1867, New Brunswick decided to confederate with Nova Scotia and the Province of Canada (now Quebec and Ontario) to form Canada. After Confederation, shipbuilding and lumbering declined, and protectionism disrupted trade with New England.

From the mid-1900s onwards, New Brunswick was one of the poorest regions of Canada, a fact eventually mitigated by transfer payments. As of 2002, the provincial GDP was derived as follows: services (about half being government services and public administration) 43%; construction, manufacturing, and utilities 24%; real estate rental 12%; wholesale and retail 11%; agriculture, forestry, fishing, hunting, mining, oil and gas extraction 5%; transportation and warehousing 5%.[13] Most companies and news outlets in the province are owned by the Irving corporation.[14][15] The province's 2019 output was CA$38.236 billion, which is 1.65% of Canada's GDP.[16]

Tourism accounts for 9% of the labour force either directly or indirectly. Popular destinations include the Hopewell Rocks, Fundy National Park, Magnetic Hill, Kouchibouguac National Park and Roosevelt Campobello International Park.[17]