Newspaper of record
A newspaper of record is a major newspaper with large circulation whose editorial and news-gathering functions are considered authoritative. It may also refer to a newspaper that has been authorised to publish public or legal notices, thus serving as a newspaper of public record.
Newspapers of public record
A "newspaper of public record", sometimes referred to as a government gazette, refers to a publicly available newspaper that has been authorized by a government to publish public or legal notices. It is often established by statute or official action and publication of notices within it, whether by the government or a private party, is usually considered sufficient to comply with legal requirements for public notice.
In some jurisdictions, privately owned newspapers may register with the public authorities to publish public and legal notices, or be otherwise eligible to publish said notices (terms used may include "newspaper of general circulation" among others). Likewise, a private newspaper may be designated by the courts for publication of legal notices, such as notices of fictitious business names, if certain judicial and statutory standards are met. These are sometimes referred to as "legally adjudicated newspapers".
Newspapers of record (by reputation)
The second type of "newspaper of record" (also known as a "journal of record", or by the French term presse de référence) is not defined by any formal criteria and its characteristics can be variable. The category typically consists of those newspapers that are considered to meet higher standards of journalism than most print media, including editorial independence and attention to accuracy, and are usually renowned internationally. Despite changes in society, such newspapers have historically tended to maintain a similar tone, coverage, style, and traditions.
Origin of the term
The term is believed to have originated among librarians, who began referring to The New York Times as the "newspaper of record" when, in 1913, it became the first U.S. newspaper to publish an index of the subjects covered in its pages. In recognition of the usage, the Times held an essay contest in 1927 in which entrants had to demonstrate "The Value of The New York Times Index and Files as a Newspaper of Record". The Times, and other newspapers of its type, then sought to be chroniclers of events, acting as a record of the day's announcements, schedules, directories, proceedings, transcripts and appointments. The Times no longer considers itself a newspaper of record in the original, literal sense.
Over time, historians began to rely on The New York Times and similar titles as a reliable archival record of significant past events and a gauge of societal opinions at the time of printing. The term "newspaper of record" thus evolved from its original literal sense to its currently understood meaning.
|Country||Region||Newspaper||City of publication||Founded||Language||Source(s)|
|Argentina||Latin America||La Nación||Buenos Aires||1870||Spanish|
|The Sydney Morning Herald||Sydney||1831|
Staff split in 1864 to form Neue Freie Presse, aryanized by the Nazis in 1938 and closed in 1939, reestablished as Die Presse in 1946
|Bangladesh||South Asia||—||The Daily Star||Dhaka||1991||English|
|Bolivia||Latin America||—||El Diario||La Paz||1904||Spanish|
|Brazil||Latin America||—||O Estado de S. Paulo||São Paulo||1875||Portuguese|
|Folha de S.Paulo||São Paulo||1921|
|O Globo||Rio de Janeiro||1925|
|Cambodia||Asia||The Cambodia Daily||Phnom Penh||1993||English|
|The Phnom Penh Post||Phnom Penh||1992|
|Canada||North America||Le Devoir||Montreal||1910||French|
|The Globe and Mail||Toronto||1844
Successor to The Globe (founded 1844), The Toronto Mail (1872) and Toronto Empire (1887); papers merged in 1895 and 1936
|Chile||Latin America||El Mercurio||Santiago||1900
Spun off from El Mercurio de Valparaíso (founded 1827)
Le Figaro is France's oldest national newspaper still operating to this date.
Founded as a successor to the discredited collaborationist Le Temps (founded 1861).
|Germany||Europe||Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung||Frankfurt||1949
Considered a successor to the Frankfurter Zeitung (founded 1856), banned in 1943 by the Nazis
|Hong Kong||East Asia||South China Morning Post||Hong Kong||1903||English|
|India||South Asia||The Hindu||Chennai||1878||English|
|The Times of India||Mumbai||1838
Named The Bombay Times and Journal of Commerce until mergers in 1860–1.
|Ireland||Europe||The Irish Times||Dublin||1859||English|
|Israel||West Asia||Haaretz||Tel Aviv||1919||Hebrew and English|
|Italy||Europe||Corriere della Sera||Milan||1876||Italian|
|Jamaica||North America||—||The Gleaner||Kingston||1834||English|
|Japan||East Asia||The Asahi Shimbun||Osaka||1879||Japanese|
Originated as the Swahili Taifa in 1958.
Founded as Pagaidu Valdības Vēstnesis in 1918, closed 1940–1991, current form since 1993
|Malaysia||Southeast Asia||New Straits Times||Kuala Lumpur||1965
Spun off from The Straits Times (founded 1845) upon Singapore's independence.
Merger of Algemeen Handelsblad (founded 1828) and Nieuwe Rotterdamsche Courant (1844).
|New Zealand||Oceania||The New Zealand Herald||Auckland||1863||English|
|Panama||Latin America||—||La Prensa||Panama City||1980||Spanish|
|Peru||Latin America||El Comercio||Lima||1839||Spanish|
|Philippines||Southeast Asia||—||Manila Bulletin||Manila||1900||English|
|Philippine Daily Inquirer||Makati||1985||English|
|The Philippine Star||Manila||1986||English|
First dissolved in 1931 and revived in 1944, second dissolution in 1951, revived again in 1982
|Jornal de Notícias||Porto||1888|
|Saudi Arabia||West Asia||Al-Hayat||London||1946
Founded as a Lebanese newspaper that shut down in 1978, refounded in 1988 under a new ownership.
|Singapore||Southeast Asia||The Straits Times||Singapore||1845||English|
|Switzerland||Europe||Neue Zürcher Zeitung||Zurich||1780||German|
Merger of Journal de Genève (founded 1826), Gazette de Lausanne (1798), and Nouveau Quotidien (1991).
|United Kingdom||Europe||The Daily Telegraph||London||1855||English|
Named The Daily Universal Register until 1788.
|United States||North America||Los Angeles Times||Los Angeles||1881||English|
|The New York Times||New York City||1851|
|The Wall Street Journal||1889|
|The Washington Post||Washington, D.C.||1877|
|Zimbabwe||Africa||—||The Financial Gazette||Harare||1990||English|
de facto paper of record replacing the government-run, Zimbabwe Herald.
- Martin, Shannon E. (1998). Newspapers of Record in a Digital Age: From Hot Type to Hot Link. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers. p. 1. ISBN 0-275-95960-0.
- Martin, Shannon E. (1998). Newspapers of record in a digital age: from hot type to hot link. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers. p. 5. ISBN 0-275-95960-0.
- Black's Law Dictionary, 6th edn. West Publishing. 1990. ISBN 90-6544-631-1.
- See, for example, L.N. 362 of 1997 of The Government of The Hong Kong Special Administrative Region Gazette
- For example, see Texas Local Government Code - Section 52.004. Official Newspaper
- "City of McCleary, Official Newspaper".
- See, e.g., "California Government Code, Sec. 6000 - 6008". California Legislative Information. California State Legislature. Retrieved 12 March 2020.
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- Martin, Shannon (1998). Newspapers of Record in a Digital Age: From Hot Type to Hot Link. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers. pp. 6, 27, 31. ISBN 0275959600.
- Martin, Shannon E. (1998). Newspapers of record in a digital age: from hot type to hot link. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers. p. 7. ISBN 0-275-95960-0.
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In spite of the readership crisis in the United States, The New York Times is a newspaper of record in many countries, as is Le Monde in France or La Nación in Argentina.
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It is the...country's newspaper of record. O Estado is sometimes called the "New York Times of Latin America" because of its grave editorial demeanour.
- Fabricio, Roberto (16 April 1992). "Brazilian Officers Issue Manifesto". Sun-Sentinel. Retrieved 10 October 2013.
The statement, published on Tuesday by O Estado de Sao Paulo, Brazil`s newspaper of record, was datelined in Fortaleza, a mid-sized city in northeastern Brazil.
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- Parkhouse, Alan (7 May 2018). "New start or sad end for Cambodia's last free newspaper?". Asia Times. Retrieved 3 December 2020.
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[T]he Toronto-based Globe and Mail has had the kind of success in Canada that the New York Times had enjoyed in the U.S., as the leading 'newspaper of record' with a national readership.
- Jiwani, Yasmin (2009). "Helpless Maidens and Chivalrous Knights: Afghan Women in the Canadian Press". University of Toronto Quarterly. 2. 78 (2): 728–744. doi:10.3138/utq.78.2.728.
This essay interrogates representations of Afghan women in the Globe and Mail, Canada's major English-language daily and newspaper of record.
- Keil, Roger; S. Harris Ali (2011). Networked Disease: Emerging Infections in the Global City. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 978-1444399110. Retrieved 14 October 2012.
- "Where's Mario". Maclean's. 25 August 2008. Retrieved 17 January 2010.
- "Endorsements, opinions flourish in Quebec". cbc.ca. 10 October 2008. Retrieved 17 January 2010.
- "El fenómeno de Bachelet pone en jaque a la derecha chilena". BBC Mundo. 7 November 2013. Retrieved 21 February 2014.
- Middle East Institute, 1950, p. 155.|quote=Al Ahram is... what The Times is to Englishmen and the New York Times to Americans
- Perreault, Gregory (2011). "Islam is Everywhere": Coverage of Islam in the English Egyptian Press". Journalism and Mass Communication Quarterly: 14. Retrieved 10 October 2013.
This is significant because the state-run Al Ahram is considered the paper of record in Egypt
- Muir, Simo; Worther, Hana (2013). Finland's Holocaust: Silences of History. ISBN 978-1137302649.
- "Le Figaro opts for freemium web model". the Guardian. Retrieved 31 May 2015.
- "Le Figaro". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 31 May 2015.
... one of the great newspapers of France and of the world.
- "Le Monde, whose print edition comes out around lunchtime, was launched at the end of Nazi occupation of France in 1944 and took on the role of France's newspaper of record alongside the more conservative Le Figaro." - France's Le Monde newspaper editor quits after power struggle with staff, Reuters, 14 May 2014
- "A capital crisis may bring down leftist French paper / Liberation, founded in 1968, has seen circulation plummet". San Francisco Chronicle. 27 October 2006. Retrieved 25 February 2017.
- "Le Monde | French newspaper". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 25 March 2018.
... one of the most important and widely respected newspapers in the world.
- Fuller, Thomas (25 August 2003). "World of Le Monde looks set to expand". International Herald Tribune.
- "France profile". BBC News. 12 January 2014. Retrieved 24 January 2014.
Le Monde - respected national daily, considered to be France's newspaper of record
- "Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung | German newspaper". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 25 March 2018.
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- Abramsohn, Jennifer (11 April 2003). "Der Spiegel Mirrors Itself in English". DW. Retrieved 22 October 2020.
- "Gloves off in German Media Scramble". The New York Times. 13 March 2011. Retrieved 23 July 2015.
- "Greece - Post Report - e Diplomat". Retrieved 31 May 2015.
- Lanchester, John (2008). Family Romance: A Love Story. 0143112953: Penguin. p. 140.
The clippings are from the South China Morning Post, the paper of record in Hong KongCS1 maint: location (link)
- Drèze, Jean; Sen, Amartya (21 February 1991). The Political Economy of Hunger: Volume 1: Entitlement and Well-being. Clarendon Press. ISBN 9780191544460.
- Bald, Vivek; Chatterji, Miabi; Reddy, Sujani; Vimalassery, Manu (22 July 2013). The Sun Never Sets: South Asian Migrants in an Age of U.S. Power. NYU Press. ISBN 978-0814786437.
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- Greg Barton; Paul Weller; Ihsan Yilmaz (18 December 2014). The Muslim World and Politics in Transition: Creative Contributions of the Gülen Movement. A&C Black. pp. 28–. ISBN 978-1-4411-5873-4. Retrieved 9 March 2020.
- Schwarz, Adam; Paris, Jonathan (1999). The Politics of Post-Suharto Indonesia. ISBN 9780876092477. Retrieved 31 May 2015.
- "Kompas Group Is Back on TV, This Time With Local Partners". The Jakarta Globe. 9 September 2011. Archived from the original on 19 February 2015. Retrieved 31 May 2015.
- "Iran Media Guide". FRONTLINE - Tehran Bureau. Retrieved 31 May 2015.
- Shahidi, Hossein (11 May 2007). Journalism in Iran. ISBN 9780203961964. Retrieved 31 May 2015.
- Dwan, David (April 2009). "The Irish Times, book review". The London Standard. Archived from the original on 27 May 2014. Retrieved 26 May 2014.
Today, the Irish Times is one of Ireland's most authoritative journals – the newspaper of record for political and intellectual elites from Mayo to Monkstown. Mark O'Brien provides a detailed and colourful account of this transformation. His history of the Irish Times is also the story of modern Ireland: it tracks the newspaper's sceptical response to the emergence of the Free State in 1922 and the declaration of the Republic in 1949; it also examines its fractious relationship with the nation's governments and political figureheads from Eamon de Valera (whom the paper repeatedly compared to Hitler) to Bertie Ahern.
- Israel — Hebrew- and English-Language Media Guide Open Source Center (16 September 2008)
- Levey, Gregory (21 August 2008). "Pushing right-wing American politics — in Israel". Salon. Retrieved 24 January 2014.
In the past few months, Haaretz, Israel's paper of record, has run a series of articles expressing misgivings about outside influence.
- Rosen, Brant (11 May 2010). "Alan Dershowitz and the Politics of Desperation". The Huffington Post. Retrieved 24 January 2014.
Recent polling, alongside articles in both the New York Times and the Israeli paper of record, Ha'aretz, indicate that the American Jewish community no longer feels represented by our so-called representatives - if we ever did.
- Gorenberg, Gershom (September 2002). "The Thin Green Line". Mother Jones. Retrieved 24 January 2014.
In late January, the declaration ran as an ad in Ha'aretz, the national paper of record...
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... it appears with its rival on most experts’ lists of the world’s greatest newspapers.
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Kenya's newspaper of record, the Daily Nation, published a banner headline "Never Again" over an editorial with a sharp, eloquent warning
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NRC Handelsblad is a serious newspaper of record; as is De Volkskrant, which is read by many students.
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... wrote a commentary in the Jan. 26 issue of Politika, the Serbian newspaper of record and the oldest daily in the Balkans.
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- "Immigrants outraged over Sweden's racial profiling". The Standard. 15 March 2013. Retrieved 10 October 2013.
Dagens Nyheter, Sweden's paper of record.
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... long the newspaper of record in the United States and one of the world’s great newspapers.
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