Ningxia // (Chinese: 宁夏, Mandarin pronunciation: [nǐŋ.ɕjâ]; alternately romanized as Ninghsia), officially the Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region (NHAR), is a landlocked autonomous region in the northwest of the People's Republic of China. Formerly a province, Ningxia was incorporated into Gansu in 1954 but was separated from Gansu in 1958 and was reconstituted as an autonomous region for the Hui people, one of the 56 officially recognised nationalities of China. Twenty percent of China's Hui population lives in Ningxia.
Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region
|• Chinese||宁夏回族自治区 (Níngxià Huízú Zìzhìqū)|
|• Abbreviation||NX / 宁 (pinyin: Níng)|
|Named for||宁 níng—tranquil|
夏 xià—Western Xia
(and largest city)
|Divisions||5 prefectures, 21 counties, 219 townships|
|• Type||Autonomous region|
|• Body||Ningxia Hui Autonomous Regional People's Congress|
|• CCP Secretary||Chen Run'er|
|• Congress chairman||Chen Run'er|
|• Gov't Chairwoman||Xian Hui|
|• CPPCC chairman||Cui Bo|
|• Total||66,399.73 km2 (25,637.08 sq mi)|
|Highest elevation||3,556 m (11,667 ft)|
|• Density||110/km2 (280/sq mi)|
|• Density rank||25th|
|• Ethnic composition||Han: 62%|
|• Languages and dialects||Lanyin Mandarin, Zhongyuan Mandarin|
|ISO 3166 code||CN-NX|
|GDP (2020)||CNY 392 billion |
USD 56.84 billion (29th)
|- per capita||CNY 54,432 |
USD 7,889 (21st)
|HDI (2018)||0.745 (high) (22nd)|
Ningxia is bounded by Shaanxi to the east, Gansu to the south and west and Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region to the north and has an area of around 66,400 square kilometres (25,600 sq mi). This sparsely settled, mostly desert region lies partially on the Loess Plateau and in the vast plain of the Yellow River and features the Great Wall of China along its northeastern boundary. Over about 2000 years an extensive system of canals (The total length about 1397 kilometers) has been built from Qin dynasty. Extensive land reclamation and irrigation projects have made increased cultivation possible.
Ningxia was the core area of the Western Xia in the 11th-13th century, established by the Tangut people; its name, "Peaceful Xia", derived from the Mongol conquest of the state. The Tanguts made significant achievements in literature, art, music, and architecture, particularly invented Tangut script. Long one of the country's poorest areas, a small winemaking industry has become economically important since the 1980s. Before the arrival of viticulture, Ningxia's 6.8 million people, 36 per cent of whom are Muslims from the Hui ethnic group, relied largely on animal grazing, subsistence agriculture and the cultivation of wolfberries used in traditional Chinese medicine. The province housed almost 40,000 hectares of wine grapes and produced 120 million wine bottles in 2017 – a quarter of the entire nation's production.
The region of Xihaigu suffers from a severe water shortage.