Norfolk Island

Norfolk Island (/ˈnɔːrfək/, locally /ˈnɔːrfk/;[8] Norfuk: Norf'k Ailen[9]) is an external territory of Australia located in the Pacific Ocean between New Zealand and New Caledonia, 1,412 kilometres (877 mi) directly east of Australia's Evans Head and about 900 kilometres (560 mi) from Lord Howe Island. Together with the neighbouring Phillip Island and Nepean Island, the three islands collectively form the Territory of Norfolk Island.[10] At the 2016 census, it had 1748 inhabitants living on a total area of about 35 km2 (14 sq mi).[6] Its capital is Kingston.

Norfolk Island is the main island in a group comprising the Australian external territory of Norfolk Island, situated in the Pacific Ocean between Australia and New Zealand approximately 692 km (430 mi) south of New Caledonia.

Norfolk Island
Territory of Norfolk Island
Teratri a' Norf'k Ailen (Norfuk)[1]
Anthem: "God Save the Queen"[citation needed]
Territorial anthem: "Come Ye Blessed"
Location of Norfolk Island
Sovereign stateAustralia
Separation from Tasmania1 November 1856
Transfer to Australia1 July 1914
29.03°S 167.95°E / -29.03; 167.95
Largest cityBurnt Pine
Official languages
Ethnic groups
Demonym(s)Norfolk Islander[5]
GovernmentDirectly administered dependency
Elizabeth II
David Hurley
Eric Hutchinson (Liberal)
34.6 km2 (13.4 sq mi)
 Water (%)
Highest elevation
319 m (1,047 ft)
 2016 census
1,748[6] (not ranked)
61.9/km2 (160.3/sq mi) (not ranked)
GDP (nominal)2016 estimate
HDI (2008)0.958
very high
CurrencyAustralian dollar (AUD)
Time zoneUTC+11:00 (NFT)
  Summer (DST)
UTC+12:00 (NFDT)
Driving sideleft
Calling code+672
NSW 2899
ISO 3166 codeNF

The first known settlers in Norfolk Island were East Polynesians but they had already departed when Great Britain settled it as part of its 1788 settlement of Australia. The island served as a convict penal settlement from 6 March 1788 until 5 May 1855, except for an 11-year hiatus between 15 February 1814 and 6 June 1825,[11][12] when it lay abandoned. On 8 June 1856, permanent civilian residence on the island began when descendents of the Bounty mutineers were relocated from Pitcairn Island. In 1914 the UK handed Norfolk Island over to Australia to administer as an external territory.[13]

Native to the island, the evergreen Norfolk Island pine is a symbol of the island and is pictured on its flag. The pine is a key export for Norfolk Island, being a popular ornamental tree in Australia (where two related species grow), and also worldwide.