Norfolk Island (//, locally //; Norfuk: Norf'k Ailen) is an external territory of Australia located in the Pacific Ocean between New Zealand and New Caledonia, 1,412 kilometres (877 mi) directly east of Australia's Evans Head and about 900 kilometres (560 mi) from Lord Howe Island. Together with the neighbouring Phillip Island and Nepean Island, the three islands collectively form the Territory of Norfolk Island. At the 2016 census, it had 1748 inhabitants living on a total area of about 35 km2 (14 sq mi). Its capital is Kingston.
|Territory of Norfolk Island|
Teratri a' Norf'k Ailen (Norfuk)
|Anthem: "God Save the Queen"|
|Territorial anthem: "Come Ye Blessed"|
|Separation from Tasmania||1 November 1856|
|Transfer to Australia||1 July 1914|
|Largest city||Burnt Pine|
|Ethnic groups |
|Government||Directly administered dependency|
|Eric Hutchinson (Liberal)|
|34.6 km2 (13.4 sq mi)|
• Water (%)
|Highest elevation||319 m (1,047 ft)|
• 2016 census
|1,748 (not ranked)|
|61.9/km2 (160.3/sq mi) (not ranked)|
|GDP (nominal)||2016 estimate|
|Currency||Australian dollar (AUD)|
|Time zone||UTC+11:00 (NFT)|
• Summer (DST)
|ISO 3166 code||NF|
The first known settlers in Norfolk Island were East Polynesians but they had already departed when Great Britain settled it as part of its 1788 settlement of Australia. The island served as a convict penal settlement from 6 March 1788 until 5 May 1855, except for an 11-year hiatus between 15 February 1814 and 6 June 1825, when it lay abandoned. On 8 June 1856, permanent civilian residence on the island began when descendents of the Bounty mutineers were relocated from Pitcairn Island. In 1914 the UK handed Norfolk Island over to Australia to administer as an external territory.
Native to the island, the evergreen Norfolk Island pine is a symbol of the island and is pictured on its flag. The pine is a key export for Norfolk Island, being a popular ornamental tree in Australia (where two related species grow), and also worldwide.