North Korean standard language

North Korean standard language or Munhwaŏ (Korean: 문화어; Hanja: 文化語; lit. "cultural language") is the North Korean standard version of the Korean language. Munhwaŏ was adopted as the standard in 1966. The adopting proclamation stated that the Pyongan dialect spoken in the North Korean capital Pyongyang and its surroundings should be the basis for Munhwaŏ; however, in practice, Iksop Lee and S. Robert Ramsey report that Munhwaŏ remains "firmly rooted" in the Seoul dialect, which had been the national standard for centuries. Most differences between the North and South Korean standards are thus attributable to replacement of Sino-Korean vocabulary and other loanwords with pure Korean words, or the Northern ideological preference for "the speech of the working class" which includes some words considered non-standard in the South.[1]

North Korean standard language
Native toNorth Korea
EraSecond half of the 20th century and 21st century
Koreanic languages
  • North Korean standard language
Early forms
Official status
Official language in
 North Korea
Language codes
ISO 639-3
North Korean standard language
North Korean name
South Korean name
An example of the North Korean language as spoken by the translator and Kim Jong-un at the 2018 North Korea–United States Singapore Summit

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