Northern Rhodesia was a protectorate in south central Africa, formed in 1911 by amalgamating the two earlier protectorates of Barotziland-North-Western Rhodesia and North-Eastern Rhodesia. It was initially administered, as were the two earlier protectorates, by the British South Africa Company (BSAC), a chartered company, on behalf of the British Government. From 1924, it was administered by the British Government as a protectorate, under similar conditions to other British-administered protectorates, and the special provisions required when it was administered by BSAC were terminated.
|Anthem: "God Save the King/Queen" |
|Status||Territory of the British South Africa Company (1911–1924)|
Protectorate of the United Kingdom (1924–1953, 1963–1964)
Division of the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland (1953–1963)
|Capital||Livingstone (until 1935)|
Lusaka (from 1935)
|Common languages||English (official)|
Bemba, Nyanja, Tonga and Lozi widely spoken
|Lawrence Aubrey Wallace|
|Sir Evelyn Hone|
|Historical era||Interwar period · Cold War|
• British protectorate
|1 April 1924|
|24 October 1964|
|Currency||Southern Rhodesian pound|
|Today part of||Zambia|
Although under the BSAC charter it had features of a charter colony, the BSAC's treaties with local rulers, and British legislation, gave it the status of a protectorate. The territory attracted a relatively small number of European settlers, but from the time they first secured political representation, they agitated for white minority rule, either as a separate entity or associated with Southern Rhodesia and possibly Nyasaland. The mineral wealth of Northern Rhodesia made full amalgamation attractive to Southern Rhodesian politicians, but the British Government preferred a looser association to include Nyasaland. This was intended to protect Africans in Northern Rhodesia and Nyasaland from discriminatory Southern Rhodesian laws. The Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland formed in 1953 was intensely unpopular among the vast African majority and its formation hastened calls for majority rule. As a result of this pressure, the country became independent in 1964 as Zambia.
The geographical, as opposed to political, term "Rhodesia" referred to a region generally comprising the areas that are today Zambia and Zimbabwe. From 1964, it only referred to the former Southern Rhodesia.