Northumberland


Northumberland (/nɔːrˈθʌmbərlənd/[2]) is a unitary authority and historic county in North East England, the northernmost county of England. The unitary authority borders Cumbria to the west, County Durham and Tyne and Wear to the south and the Scottish Borders to the north. To the east is the North Sea coastline with a path 103 kilometres (64 mi) long.[3] The county town is Alnwick,[4] although the county council is based in Morpeth.[5]

Northumberland
Ceremonial county
Flag Coat of arms

Coordinates: 55°10′N 2°00′W
Sovereign stateUnited Kingdom
Constituent countryEngland
RegionNorth East
EstablishedAncient
Ceremonial county
Lord LieutenantJane Percy, Duchess of Northumberland
High SheriffThomas Fairfax of Mindrum [1] (2020–21)
Area5,013 km2 (1,936 sq mi)
  Ranked6th of 48
Population (mid-2019 est.)320,274
  Ranked44th of 48
Density64/km2 (170/sq mi)
Ethnicity95.4% White British
Unitary authority
CouncilNorthumberland County Council
ExecutiveConservative (council NOC)
Admin HQMorpeth
Area5,014 km2 (1,936 sq mi)
  Ranked1st of 326
Population322,434
  Ranked36th of 326
Density64/km2 (170/sq mi)
ISO 3166-2GB-NBL
ONS code00EM
GSS codeE06000057
NUTSUKC21
Websitewww.northumberland.gov.uk
Members of ParliamentList of MPs
PoliceNorthumbria Police
Time zoneGreenwich Mean Time (UTC)
  Summer (DST)British Summer Time (UTC+1)

The county of Northumberland included Newcastle upon Tyne until 1400, when the city became a county of itself.[6] Northumberland expanded greatly in the Tudor period, annexing Berwick-upon-Tweed in 1482, Tynedale in 1495, Tynemouth in 1536, Redesdale around 1542 and Hexhamshire in 1572.[7] Islandshire, Bedlingtonshire and Norhamshire were incorporated into Northumberland in 1844.[8] Tynemouth and other settlements in North Tyneside were transferred to Tyne and Wear in 1974 under the Local Government Act 1972.

Lying on the Anglo-Scottish border, Northumberland has been the site of a number of battles. The county is noted for its undeveloped landscape of high moorland, now largely protected as the Northumberland National Park. Northumberland is the least densely populated county in England, with only 62 people per square kilometre.

History


Long Crag summit

Northumberland originally meant 'the land of the people living north of the Humber'.[9] The present county is the core of that former land, and has long been a frontier zone between England and Scotland. During Roman occupation of Britain, most of the present county lay north of Hadrian's Wall. It was controlled by Rome only for the brief period of its extension of power north to the Antonine Wall. The Roman road Dere Street crosses the county from Corbridge over high moorland west of the Cheviot Hills into present Scotland to Trimontium (Melrose). As evidence of its border position through medieval times, Northumberland has more castles than any other county in England,[10] including those at Alnwick, Bamburgh, Dunstanburgh, Newcastle and Warkworth.

Northumberland has a rich prehistory with many instances of rock art, hillforts such as Yeavering Bell, and stone circles such as the Goatstones and Duddo Five Stones. Most of the area was occupied by the Brythonic-Celtic Votadini people, with another large tribe, the Brigantes, to the south.

An early mention of Northumberland in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle

Later, the region of present-day Northumberland formed the core of the Anglian kingdom of Bernicia (from about 547), which united with Deira (south of the River Tees) to form the kingdom of Northumbria in the 7th century. The historical boundaries of Northumbria under King Edwin (reigned 616–633) stretched from the Humber in the south to the Forth in the north. After the battle of Nechtansmere its influence north of the Tweed began to decline as the Picts gradually reclaimed the land previously invaded by the Saxon kingdom. In 1018 its northern part, the region between the Tweed and the Forth (including Lothian that contains present-day Edinburgh), was ceded to the Kingdom of Scotland.

Northumberland is often called the "cradle of Christianity" in England because Christianity flourished on Lindisfarne—a tidal island north of Bamburgh, also called Holy Island—after King Oswald of Northumbria (reigned 634–642) invited monks from Iona to come to convert the English. A monastery at Lindisfarne was the centre of production of the Lindisfarne Gospels (around 700). It became the home of St Cuthbert (about 634–687, abbot from about 665), who is buried in Durham Cathedral.

Bamburgh is the historic capital of Northumberland, the royal castle from before the unification of the Kingdoms of England under the monarchs of the House of Wessex in the 10th century.

The Earldom of Northumberland was briefly held by the Scottish royal family by marriage between 1139–1157 and 1215–1217. Scotland relinquished all claims to the region as part of the Treaty of York (1237). The Earls of Northumberland once wielded significant power in English affairs because, as powerful and militaristic Marcher Lords, they had the task of protecting England from Scottish retaliation for English invasions.

Northumberland has a history of revolt and rebellion against the government, as seen in the Rising of the North (1569–1570) against Elizabeth I of England. These revolts were usually led by the Earls of Northumberland, the Percy family. Shakespeare makes one of the Percys, the dashing Harry Hotspur (1364–1403), the hero of his Henry IV, Part 1. The Percys were often aided in conflict by other powerful Northern families, such as the Nevilles and the Patchetts. The latter were stripped of all power and titles by the victorious Parliamentarians after the English Civil War of 1642–1651.

After the Restoration of 1660, the county was a centre for Roman Catholicism in England, as well as a focus of Jacobite support. Northumberland was long a wild county, where outlaws and Border Reivers hid from the law. However, the frequent cross-border skirmishes and accompanying local lawlessness largely subsided after the Union of the Crowns of Scotland and England under King James I and VI in 1603.[11]

Northumberland played a key role in the Industrial Revolution from the 18th century on. Many coal mines operated in Northumberland until the widespread closures in the 1970s and 1980s. Collieries operated at Ashington, Bedlington, Blyth, Choppington, Netherton, Ellington and Pegswood. The region's coalfields fuelled industrial expansion in other areas of Britain, and the need to transport the coal from the collieries to the Tyne led to the development of the first railways. Shipbuilding and armaments manufacture were other important industries before the deindustrialisation of the 1980s.

Northumberland remains largely rural, and is the least-densely populated county in England. In recent years the county has had considerable growth in tourism. Visitors are attracted both to its scenic beauty and its historical sites.

Archaeology

Nearly 2000-year-old Roman boxing gloves were uncovered at Vindolanda in 2017 by the Vidolanda Trust experts led by Dr Andrew Birley. According to the Guardian, being similar in style and function to the full-hand modern boxing gloves, these two gloves found at Vindolanda look like leather bands date back to 120 AD. It is suggested that, based on their difference from gladiator gloves, warriors using this type of gloves had no purpose to kill each other, and that the gloves probably were used in a sport for promoting fighting skills. The gloves are currently displayed at Vindolanda's museum.[12][13][14][15][16][17][18][19][20]

Physical geography


Physical geography of Northumberland and surrounding areas

Northumberland has a diverse physical geography. It is low and flat near the North Sea coast and increasingly mountainous toward the northwest. Being in the far north of England, above 55° latitude, and having many areas of high land, Northumberland is one of the coldest areas of the country. However, the county lies on the east coast, and has relatively low rainfall, with the highest amounts falling on the high land in the west.[21]

Approximately a quarter of the county is protected as the Northumberland National Park, an area of outstanding landscape that has largely been protected from development and agriculture. The park stretches south from the Scottish border and includes Hadrian's Wall. Most of the park is over 240 metres (790 feet) above sea level. The Northumberland Coast is also a designated Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty (AONB). A small part of the North Pennines AONB is also in the county.

Natural England recognises the following natural regions, or national character areas, that lie wholly or partially within Northumberland:[22]

Geology

The Cheviot Hills, in the northwest of the county, consist mainly of resistant Devonian granite and andesite lava. A second area of igneous rock underlies the Whin Sill (on which Hadrian's Wall runs), an intrusion of Carboniferous dolerite. Both ridges support a rather bare moorland landscape. Either side of the Whin Sill the county lies on Carboniferous Limestone, giving some areas of karst landscape.[23] Lying off the coast of Northumberland are the Farne Islands, another dolerite outcrop, famous for their bird life.

There are coalfields in the southeast corner of the county, extending along the coastal region north of the river Tyne. The term 'sea coal' likely originated from chunks of coal, found washed up on beaches, that wave action had broken from coastal outcroppings.

River Coquet

Ecology and environment


There is a variety of notable habitats and species in Northumberland including: Chillingham Cattle herd; Holy Island; Farne Islands; and Staple Island. Moreover, 50% of England's red squirrel population lives in the Kielder Water and Forest Park along with a large variety of other species including roe deer and wildfowl.[citation needed]

Green belt

Northumberland's green belt is in the south of the county, surrounding Cramlington and other communities along the county border, to afford a protection from the Tyneside conurbation. The belt continues west along the border, past Darras Hall, and on to Hexham, stopping before Haydon Bridge. Its border there is shared with the North Pennines AONB. There are also some separated belt areas, for example to the east of Morpeth. The green belt was first drawn up in the 1950s.

Economy and industry


Housedon Hill

Northumberland's industry is dominated by some multi-national corporations: Coca-Cola, MSD, GE and Drager all have significant facilities in the region.[24]

Tourism is a major source of employment and income in Northumberland. In the early 2000s the county annually received 1.1 million British visitors and 50,000 foreign tourists, who spent a total of £162 million.

Coal mining in the county goes back to Tudor times. Coal mines continue to operate today; many of them are open-cast mines. Planning approval was given in January 2014 for an open-cast mine at Halton Lea Gate near Lambley, Northumberland.[25]

A major employer in Northumberland is Hexham-based Egger (UK) Limited.[26][27]

Pharmaceuticals, healthcare and biotechnology

Pharmaceutical, healthcare and emerging medical biotechnology companies form a very significant part of the county's economy.[28] Many of these companies are part of the approximately 11,000-worker[29] Northeast of England Process Industry Cluster (NEPIC) and include Aesica Pharmaceuticals,[30] Arcinova, MSD, Piramal Healthcare, Procter & Gamble, Shire Plc (formerly SCM Pharma),[31] Shasun Pharma Solutions,[32] Specials Laboratory,[33] and Thermo Fisher Scientific. The cluster also includes Cambridge Bioresearch, GlaxoSmithKline, Fujifilm Dyosynth Biotech, Leica Bio, Data Trial, High Force Research, Non-Linear Dynamics, and Immuno Diagnostic Systems (IDS). The towns of Alnwick, Cramlington, Morpeth, Prudhoe all have significant pharmaceutical factories and laboratories.[34]

Newcastle University and Northumbria University are the leading academic institutions nearby. The local industry includes commercial or academic activity in pre-clinical research and development, clinical research and development, pilot-scale manufacturing, full-scale active pharmaceutical ingredient/intermediate manufacturing, formulation, packaging, and distribution.[35]

Education


Northumberland has a completely comprehensive education system, with 15 state schools, two academies and one independent school. Like Bedfordshire, it embraced the comprehensive ideal with the three-tier system of lower/middle/upper schools with large school year sizes (often around 300). This eliminated choice of school in most areas: instead of having two secondary schools in one town, one school became a middle school and another became an upper school. A programme introduced in 2006 known as Putting the Learner First has eliminated this structure in the former areas of Blyth Valley and Wansbeck, where two-tier education has been introduced. Although the two processes are not officially connected, the introduction of two tiers has coincided with the move to build academy schools in Blyth, with Bede Academy and in Ashington at Hirst. One response to these changes has been the decision of Ponteland High School to apply for Trust status.

Cramlington Learning Village has almost 400 pupils in each school year, making it one of the largest schools in England. The Blyth Academy in southeast Northumberland can hold 1,500 students throughout the building. Astley Community High School in Seaton Delaval, which accepts students from Seaton Delaval, Seaton Sluice and Blyth, has been the subject of controversial remarks from politicians claiming it would no longer be viable once Bede Academy opened in Blyth, a claim strongly disputed by the headteacher. Haydon Bridge High School, in rural Northumberland, is claimed to have the largest catchment area of any school in England, reputedly covering an area larger than that encompassed by the M25 motorway around London.

The county of Northumberland is served by one Catholic high school, St Benet Biscop Catholic Academy in Bedlington, which is attended by students from all over the area. Students from Northumberland also attend independent schools such as the Royal Grammar School in Newcastle.

Demographics


At the Census 2001 Northumberland registered a population of 307,190,[36] estimated to be 309,237 in 2003,[37] The 2011 census gave a population of 316,028.[38]

In 2001 there were 130,780 households, 10% of which were all retired, and one third were rented. Northumberland has an ethnic minority population at 0.985% of the population, compared to 9.1% for England as a whole. In the 2001 census, 81% of the population reported their religion as Christianity, 0.8% as "other religion", and 12% as having no religion.[39]

Being primarily rural with significant areas of upland, the population density of Northumberland is only 62 persons per square kilometre, giving it the lowest population density in England.

Politics


Northumberland is a unitary authority area and is the largest unitary area in England. The County Council is based in Morpeth.

Like most English shire counties Northumberland had until April 2009 a two-tier system of local government, with one county council and six districts, each with their own district council, responsible for different aspects of local government. These districts were Blyth Valley, Wansbeck, Castle Morpeth, Tynedale, Alnwick and Berwick-upon-Tweed. The districts were abolished on 1 April 2009, the county council becoming a unitary authority.

Elections for the new unitary authority council first took place on 1 May 2008. The County Council elections in 2017 returned the following results:

County Council Election 2017: Northumberland
Conservatives Labour Liberal Democrats Independents UKIP Green Turnout
44,387 27,122 12,150 11,592 3,114 2,270 100,635
Overall Council seats as of 2017
Conservative Labour Independents LibDem UKIP Green Total
33 (12) 24 (8) 7 (4) 3 (8) 0 () 0 () 47

Northumberland is represented by four UK Parliamentary constituencies: Berwick-upon-Tweed, Blyth Valley, Wansbeck and Hexham. The 2017 General Election produced the following results:

General Election 2017 : Northumberland
Liberal DemocratsLabourConservativeUKIPOthersGreenTurnout
16,163
- 3,159
74,232
+ 20,307
76,899
+ 20,730
2,413
- 22,000
0

– 3,401

3,673
- 3,167
173,380
Overall numbers of seats as of 2017
LabourConservative
22

On 23 June 2016, Northumberland took part in the UK-wide referendum on the UK's membership of the EU. In Northumberland a majority voted to Leave the European Union.

EU Referendum 2016 : Northumberland
Leave Remain Majority Turnout
96,699

54.1%

82,022

45.89%

14,677

8.21%

178,721

Culture


Northumberland has traditions not found elsewhere in England. These include the rapper sword dance, the clog dance and the Northumbrian smallpipe, a sweet chamber instrument, quite unlike the Scottish bagpipe. Northumberland also has its own tartan or check, sometimes referred to in Scotland as the Shepherd's Tartan. Traditional Northumberland music has more similarity to Lowland Scottish and Irish music than it does to that of other parts of England, reflecting the strong historical links between Northumbria and the Lowlands of Scotland, and the large Irish population on Tyneside.

The border ballads of the region have been famous since late mediaeval times. Thomas Percy, whose celebrated Reliques of Ancient English Poetry appeared in 1765, states that most of the minstrels who sang the border ballads in London and elsewhere in the 15th and 16th centuries belonged to the North. The activities of Sir Walter Scott and others in the 19th century gave the ballads an even wider popularity. William Morris considered them to be the greatest poems in the language, while Algernon Charles Swinburne knew virtually all of them by heart.

One of the best-known is the stirring "Chevy Chase", which tells of the Earl of Northumberland's vow to hunt for three days across the Border "maugre the doughty Douglas". Of it, the Elizabethan courtier, soldier and poet Sir Philip Sidney famously said, "I never heard the old song of Percy and Douglas that I found not my heart moved more than with a trumpet". Ben Jonson said that he would give all his works to have written "Chevy Chase".

Overall the culture of Northumberland, as with the North East of England in general, has much more in common with Scottish Lowland culture than with that of Southern England. One reason is that both regions have their cultural origins in the old Anglian Kingdom of Northumbria, a fact borne out by the linguistic links between the two regions. These include many Old English words not found in other forms of Modern English, such as bairn for child (see Scots language and Northumbrian dialect).[40][41] The other reason for the close cultural links is the clear pattern of net southward migration. There are more Scots in England than English people north of the border. Much of this movement is cross-county rather than distant migration, and the incomers thus bring aspects of their culture as well as reinforce shared cultural traits from both sides of the Anglo-Scottish border.

Whatever the case, the lands just north or south of the border have long shared certain aspects of history and heritage; it is thus thought by some that the Anglo-Scottish border is largely political rather than cultural.[41][42]

Attempts to raise the level of awareness of Northumberland culture have also started, with the formation of a Northumbrian Language Society to preserve the unique dialects (Pitmatic and other Northumbrian dialects) of this region, as well as to promote home-grown talent.[40][41]

Northumberland's county flower is the bloody cranesbill (Geranium sanguineum) and her affiliated Royal Navy ship is her namesake, HMS Northumberland.

Flag

Northumberland flag

Northumberland has its own flag, which is a banner of the arms of Northumberland County Council. The shield of arms is in turn based on the arms medieval heralds had attributed to the Kingdom of Bernicia (which the first County Council used until was granted its own arms). The Bernician arms were fictional but inspired by Bede's brief description of a flag used on the tomb of St Oswald in the 7th century.[43]

The current arms were granted to the county council in 1951, and adopted as the flag of Northumberland in 1995.[44]

Media


Having no large population centres, the county's mainstream media outlets are served from nearby Tyne and Wear, including radio stations and television channels (such as BBC Look North, BBC Radio Newcastle, Tyne Tees Television and Metro Radio), along with the majority of daily newspapers covering the area (The Journal, Evening Chronicle). It is worth remembering however that although Northumberland, like many administrative areas in England, has been shorn of its geographical regional centre, that centre—Newcastle upon Tyne—remains an essential element within the entity we know as Northumberland. Newcastle's newspapers are as widely read in its Northumbrian hinterland as any of those of the wider county: the Northumberland Gazette, Morpeth Herald, Berwick Advertiser, Hexham Courant and the News Post Leader.

Lionheart Radio, a community radio station based in Alnwick, has recently been awarded a five-year community broadcasting licence by Ofcom. Radio Borders covers Berwick and the rural north of the county.

Notable people


George Stephenson was born in Northumberland

Born in Northumberland

Ashington was the birthplace of three famous footballers: Bobby and Jack Charlton, born in 1937 and 1935 respectively, and Jackie Milburn, born in 1924. In 1978 the international cricketer Steve Harmison was born here.

Mickley was the birthplace of Thomas Bewick, an artist, wood engraver and naturalist in 1753 and Bob Stokoe, a footballer and F.A. Cup-winning manager (with Sunderland in 1973), born 1930.

Other notable births include:

Linked with Northumberland

Algernon Charles Swinburne, the poet, was raised in Northumberland

The site contains exhaustive detailed entries for notable deceased Northumbrians.

Settlements


Parishes

NOTE: New parishes have been added since 2001. These are missing from the list.

Parishes of Northumberland[46]
NamePopulation (2001)Former district/borough
Acklington467Alnwick
Acomb1,184Tynedale
Adderstone with Lucker195Berwick-upon-Tweed
Akeld82Berwick-upon-Tweed
Allendale2,120Tynedale
Alnham99Alnwick
Alnmouth562Alnwick
Alnwick7,767Alnwick
Alwinton71Alnwick
Amble6,044Alnwick
Ancroft885Berwick-upon-Tweed
Bamburgh454Berwick-upon-Tweed
Bardon Mill364Tynedale
Bavington99Tynedale
Beadnell528Berwick-upon-Tweed
Belford1,055Berwick-upon-Tweed
Belsay436Castle Morpeth
Bewick69Berwick-upon-Tweed
Biddlestone88Alnwick
Bowsden157Berwick-upon-Tweed
Branxton121Berwick-upon-Tweed
Brinkburn200Alnwick
Callaly150Alnwick
Capheaton160Castle Morpeth
Carham347Berwick-upon-Tweed
Cartington97Alnwick
Chatton438Berwick-upon-Tweed
Cornhill-on-Tweed318Berwick-upon-Tweed
Craster342Alnwick
Cresswell237Castle Morpeth
Denwick266Alnwick
Doddington146Berwick-upon-Tweed
Earle89Berwick-upon-Tweed
Easington139Berwick-upon-Tweed
East Chevington3,192Castle Morpeth
Edlingham196Alnwick
Eglingham357Alnwick
Ellingham282Berwick-upon-Tweed
Ellington and Linton2,678Castle Morpeth
Elsdon205Alnwick
Embleton699Alnwick
Ewart72Berwick-upon-Tweed
Felton958Alnwick
Ford487Berwick-upon-Tweed
Glanton222Alnwick
Harbottle235Alnwick
Hartburn198Castle Morpeth
Hauxley220Alnwick
Haydon Bridge2,184Tynedale
Hebron679Castle Morpeth
Heddon-on-the-Wall1,518Castle Morpeth
Hedgeley322Alnwick
Hepple139Alnwick
Hepscott898Castle Morpeth
Hesleyhurst30Alnwick
Hexham11,829Tynedale
Hollinghill90Alnwick
Holy Island162Berwick-upon-Tweed
Horncliffe374Berwick-upon-Tweed
Ilderton94Berwick-upon-Tweed
Ingram148Berwick-upon-Tweed
Kilham131Berwick-upon-Tweed
Kirknewton108Berwick-upon-Tweed
Kyloe323Berwick-upon-Tweed
Lesbury871Alnwick
Lilburn106Berwick-upon-Tweed
Longframlington979Alnwick
Longhirst446Castle Morpeth
Longhorsley798Castle Morpeth
Longhoughton1,442Alnwick
Lowick559Berwick-upon-Tweed
Lynemouth1,832Castle Morpeth
Matfen495Castle Morpeth
Meldon162Castle Morpeth
Middleton136Berwick-upon-Tweed
Milfield243Berwick-upon-Tweed
Mitford431Castle Morpeth
Morpeth13,833Castle Morpeth
Netherton194Alnwick
Netherwitton272Castle Morpeth
Newton-by-the-Sea242Alnwick
Newton on the Moor and Swarland822Alnwick
Norham536Berwick-upon-Tweed
North Sunderland1,803Berwick-upon-Tweed
Nunnykirk138Alnwick
Ord, Northumberland1,365Berwick-upon-Tweed
Pegswood3,174Castle Morpeth
Ponteland10,871Castle Morpeth
Prudhoe11,500Tynedale
Rennington305Alnwick
Roddam77Berwick-upon-Tweed
Rothbury1,740Alnwick
Rothley136Alnwick
Shilbottle1,349Alnwick
Shoreswood163Berwick-upon-Tweed
Snitter114Alnwick
Stamfordham1,047Castle Morpeth
Stannington1,219Castle Morpeth
Thirston510Castle Morpeth
Thropton409Alnwick
Togston340Alnwick
Tritlington and West Chevington218Castle Morpeth
Ulgham365Castle Morpeth
Wallington Demesne361Castle Morpeth
Warkworth1,493Alnwick
Whalton427Castle Morpeth
Whittingham406Alnwick
Whitton and Tosson223Alnwick
Widdrington158Castle Morpeth
Widdrington Station and Stobswood2,386Castle Morpeth
Wooler1,857Berwick-upon-Tweed

Although not on this list, the population of Cramlington is estimated at 39,000.

Historic areas

Some settlements that is part historic county of Northumberland now fall under the county of Tyne and Wear:

Tyne and Wear Killingworth, Longbenton, Newcastle upon Tyne, North Shields, Tynemouth, Wallsend, Whitley Bay

See also


Notes and references


  1. "No. 62943". The London Gazette. 13 March 2020. p. 5161.
  2. "Northumberland definition and meaning - Collins English Dictionary". Collinsdictionary.com.
  3. "Northumberland Coast Path – LDWA Long Distance Paths". Ldwa.org.uk. Retrieved 15 December 2012.
  4. "Alnwick". Northumberland County Council. Retrieved 14 June 2014.
  5. Northumberland County Hall moved from Newcastle upon Tyne to Morpeth on 21 April 1981 (see notice in "No. 48579". The London Gazette. 10 April 1981. p. 5337.)
  6. "History of Newcastle upon Tyne" (PDF). Local Studies Factsheet No. 6. Newcastle City Council. 2009. p. 2. Retrieved 14 June 2014.
  7. Daniell, Christopher (2013). "Tudor Expansion of the County of Northumberland". Atlas of Early Modern Britain, 1485–1715. London: Routledge. p. 5. ISBN 978-0415729246.
  8. "The palatinate of Durham". Durham University Library Special Collections Catalogue. Durham University. Retrieved 14 June 2014.
  9. Place Name Meanings: "K to O"[permanent dead link], England's Northeast
  10. Long, B. (1967). Castles of Northumberland. Newcastle, UK: Harold Hill.
  11. Adams, Sharon; Goodare, Julian (2014). Scotland in the Age of Two Revolutions. Woodbridge: Boydell. pp. 38–39. ISBN 9781843839392.
  12. McDermott, Alicia. "Heavy Hitters: 2,000-Year-Old Boxing Gloves Suggest Roman Soldiers Used to Duke It Out". www.ancient-origins.net. Retrieved 19 August 2019.
  13. Alberge, Dalya (19 February 2018). "Rare Roman boxing gloves found near Hadrian's Wall". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 19 August 2019.
  14. Traverso, Vittoria (20 February 2018). "Found: A Pair of Boxing Gloves From 2,000 Years Ago". Atlas Obscura. Retrieved 19 August 2019.
  15. EST, Sydney Pereira on 2/20/18 at 3:04 PM (20 February 2018). "2,000-year-old Roman boxing gloves were discovered in England". Newsweek. Retrieved 19 August 2019.
  16. "1,900-Year-Old Boxing 'Gloves' Unearthed at Vindolanda | Archaeology | Sci-News.com". Breaking Science News | Sci-News.com. Retrieved 19 August 2019.
  17. Taylor, Tom (20 February 2018). "PHOTO | Beautifully preserved Ancient Roman boxing gloves unearthed in UK | BJPenn.com". | BJPenn.com. Retrieved 19 August 2019.
  18. Gibbons, Duncan (20 February 2018). ""Astonishing" Roman boxing gloves found near Hadrian's Wall". coventrytelegraph. Retrieved 19 August 2019.
  19. "Pair of ancient Roman boxing gloves unearthed - Unexplained Mysteries". www.unexplained-mysteries.com. Retrieved 19 August 2019.
  20. Henderson, Tony (20 February 2018). "Knock out as Roman boxing gloves are discovered in North East". nechronicle. Retrieved 19 August 2019.
  21. Met Office, 2000. "Annual average rainfall for the United Kingdom."
  22. "National Character Area profiles: data for local decision making". Gov.uk. Retrieved 14 December 2018.
  23. Northumberland National Park Authority, n.d. "The topology and climate of Northumberland National Park."
  24. "The leading companies shaping Northumberland's business landscape". Arch. Archived from the original on 14 December 2012. Retrieved 19 September 2013.
  25. Hexham Courant 10 January 2014 'Villagers admit defeat after 15 years battling opencast'
  26. "Major Hexham employer Egger UK". Chroniclelive.co.uk.
  27. "Hexham employer Egger UK posts rise". Chroniclelive.co.uk.
  28. "Invest in Northumberland: Key sectors". ARCH. Archived from the original on 14 December 2012. Retrieved 19 September 2013.
  29. NEPIC Directory 2013 Pharmaceuticals: Manufacturing Creates Value. Northeast of England Process Industry Cluster. May 2013. p. 33.
  30. Farrows. "CDMO for APIs & finished dosage forms". Aesica-pharma.com. Archived from the original on 21 November 2018. Retrieved 14 December 2018.
  31. "Northumberland-based SCM Pharma's trading assets acquired". Thejournal.co.uk.
  32. "Sterling Pharma Solutions". Shasun.com. Archived from the original on 28 November 1999.
  33. "Unlicensed Medicines Supplier - Specials Medicines Manufacturing". Specialslab.co.uk.
  34. "Invest in the Northumberland business landscape". Archnorthumberland.co.uk. Archived from the original on 14 December 2012. Retrieved 19 September 2013.
  35. "Pharmaceuticals Brochure" (PDF). Northeast of England Process Industry Cluster. Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 September 2015. Retrieved 19 September 2013.
  36. Office for National Statistics, 2003. "Update on 2001 Census figures Archived 13 September 2005 at the Wayback Machine."
  37. Office of the Deputy Prime Minister, 2003. "Local Government Finance Settlement 2005/06." (PDF)
  38. "Local Authority population 2011". Archived from the original on 8 July 2015. Retrieved 1 July 2015.
  39. Office for National Statistics, 2001. "KS07 Religion: Census 2001, Key Statistics for local Authorities Archived 21 December 2003 at the Wayback Machine."
  40. "North East England History Pages". Northeastengland.talktalk.net. Archived from the original on 24 February 2008. Retrieved 25 September 2010.
  41. "Northumbrian Language Society". Northumbriana.org.uk. Retrieved 25 September 2010.
  42. "Lowlands-L • a discussion group for people who share an interest in languages and cultures of the Lowlands". Lowlands-l.net. Retrieved 25 September 2010.
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Bibliography


  • Sharp, Thomas (1937). Northumberland and Durham – a Shell Guide. B.T. Batsford.
  • Tomlinson, W.W. (1968) [1888]. Comprehensive guide to the county of Northumberland. Trowbridge: Redwood.
  • Thompson, Barbara; Norderhaug, Jennifer (2006). Walking the Northumberland Dales: Hadrian's Wall Country. Sigma Press. ISBN 1-85058-838-4.