Nova Scotia

Nova Scotia (/ˌnvə ˈskʃə/ NOH-və SKOH-shə; French: Nouvelle-Écosse; Scottish Gaelic: Alba Nuadh) is one of the thirteen provinces and territories of Canada. It is one of the three Maritime provinces and one of the four Atlantic provinces. Nova Scotia is Latin for "New Scotland".

Nova Scotia
Munit Hæc et Altera Vincit (Latin)
("One defends and the other conquers")
Coordinates: 45°00′00″N 62°59′58″W[1]
Confederation1 July 1867 (1st, with New Brunswick, Ontario, Quebec)
(and largest city)
Largest metroHalifax
  TypeParliamentary constitutional monarchy
  Lieutenant GovernorArthur LeBlanc
  PremierTim Houston
LegislatureNova Scotia House of Assembly
Federal representationParliament of Canada
House seats11 of 338 (3.3%)
Senate seats10 of 105 (9.5%)
  Total55,284 km2 (21,345 sq mi)
  Land52,942 km2 (20,441 sq mi)
  Water2,342 km2 (904 sq mi)  4.2%
 0.6% of Canada
  Total969,383 [3]
(Q4 2022)
1,030,953 [4]
  Density18.31/km2 (47.4/sq mi)
Demonym(s)Nova Scotian, Bluenoser
Official languagesEnglish (de facto)[5]
First Language: Mi'kmawi'simk[6][7]

Recognised Regional Languages: French

Scottish Gaelic
  Total (2020)CA$46.849 billion[8]
  Per capitaCA$47,729 (12th)
  HDI (2019)0.903[9]Very high (11th)
Time zoneUTC-04:00 (Atlantic)
Canadian postal abbr.
Postal code prefix
ISO 3166 codeCA-NS
TreeRed spruce
Rankings include all provinces and territories

Most of the population are native English-speakers, and the province's population is 969,383 according to the 2021 Census. It is the most populous of Canada's Atlantic provinces. It is the country's second-most densely populated province and second-smallest province by area, both after Prince Edward Island.[10] Its area of 55,284 square kilometres (21,345 sq mi) includes Cape Breton Island and 3,800 other coastal islands. The Nova Scotia peninsula is connected to the rest of North America by the Isthmus of Chignecto, on which the province's land border with New Brunswick is located. The province borders the Bay of Fundy and Gulf of Maine to the west and the Atlantic Ocean to the south and east, and is separated from Prince Edward Island and the island of Newfoundland by the Northumberland and Cabot straits, respectively.

The land that comprises what is now Nova Scotia was inhabited by the Miꞌkmaq people at the time of European exploration. In 1605, Acadia—France's first New France colony—was founded with the creation of Acadia's capital, Port-Royal. Britain fought France for the territory on numerous occasions for over a century afterwards. The Fortress of Louisbourg was a key focus point in the battle for control. Subsequent to the Great Upheaval (1755–1763) where the British deported the Acadians en masse, the Conquest of New France (1758–1760) by the British, and the Treaty of Paris (1763), France had to surrender Acadia to the British Empire. During the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), thousands of Loyalists settled in Nova Scotia. In 1848, Nova Scotia became the first British colony to achieve responsible government, and it federated in July 1867 with New Brunswick and the Province of Canada (now Ontario and Quebec) to form what is now the country of Canada.

Nova Scotia's capital and largest municipality is Halifax, which is home to over 45% of the province's population as of the 2021 census. Halifax is the thirteenth-largest census metropolitan area in Canada,[11] the largest municipality in Atlantic Canada, and Canada's second-largest coastal municipality after Vancouver.

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