Oklahoma

Oklahoma (/ˌkləˈhmə/ (listen))[26] is a state in the South Central region of the United States,[27] bordered by the state of Texas on the south and west, Kansas on the north, Missouri on the northeast, Arkansas on the east, New Mexico on the west, and Colorado on the northwest. Partially in the western extreme of the Upland South, it is the 20th-most extensive and the 28th-most populous of the 50 United States. Its residents are known as Oklahomans (or colloquially "Okies"), and its capital and largest city is Oklahoma City.

Oklahoma
State of Oklahoma
Nickname(s): 
Native America, Land of the Red Man, The Sooner State
Motto(s): 
Labor omnia vincit
(English: Work conquers all)
Anthem: "Oklahoma" and "Oklahoma Hills"
Map of the United States with Oklahoma highlighted
CountryUnited States
Before statehood
Admitted to the UnionNovember 16, 1907 (46th)
Capital
(and largest city)
Oklahoma City
Largest metro and urban areasGreater Oklahoma City
Government
  GovernorKevin Stitt (R)
  Lieutenant GovernorMatt Pinnell (R)
LegislatureOklahoma Legislature
  Upper houseSenate
  Lower houseHouse of Representatives
JudiciaryOklahoma Supreme Court
U.S. senators
U.S. House delegation1: Kevin Hern (R)
2: Markwayne Mullin (R)
3: Frank Lucas (R)
4: Tom Cole (R)
5: Stephanie Bice (R) (list)
Area
  Total69,898 sq mi (181,038 km2)
  Land68,595 sq mi (177,660 km2)
  Water1,304 sq mi (3,377 km2)  1.9%
Area rank20th
Dimensions
  Length465 mi (749 km)
  Width230 mi (370 km)
Elevation
1,300 ft (400 m)
Highest elevation4,975 ft (1,516 m)
Lowest elevation289 ft (88 m)
Population
 (2020)
  Total3,963,516[3]
  Rank28th
  Density55.20/sq mi (21.30/km2)
  Density rank35th
  Median household income
$50,051[4]
  Income rank
44th
Demonym(s)Oklahoman;
Okie (colloq.);
Sooner (historically)
Language
  Official languageEnglish, Choctaw, Cherokee[lower-alpha 1][5][6][7]
Time zones
entire state (legally)UTC−06:00 (Central)
  Summer (DST)UTC−05:00 (CDT)
Kenton (informally)UTC−07:00 (Mountain)
  Summer (DST)UTC−06:00 (MDT)
USPS abbreviation
OK
ISO 3166 codeUS-OK
Traditional abbreviationOkla.
Latitude33°37' N to 37° N
Longitude94° 26' W to 103° W
Websitewww.ok.gov
Oklahoma state symbols
Living insignia
AmphibianBullfrog[8]
BirdScissor-tailed Flycatcher[9]
FishSand bass[10]
Flower
GrassIndian Grass
InsectEuropean honey bee
MammalAmerican bison[11]
ReptileMountain Boomer
TreeRedbud
Inanimate insignia
BeverageMilk[12]
ColorsWhite and green (vice versa)
DanceWaltz: Oklahoma Wind
DinosaurAcrocanthosaurus atokensis[13]
Folk danceSquare dance
FossilSaurophaganax maximus[14]
InstrumentDrum[15]
RockRose Rock
SoilPort Silt Loam
TartanOklahoma Tartan
Other
State route marker
State quarter
Released in 2008, as part of the state quarters series. Oklahoma's state bird flying above its state wildflower.[25]
Lists of United States state symbols

The state's name is derived from the Choctaw words okla and humma, meaning "honored people". Oklahoma is also known informally by its nickname, "The Sooner State", in reference to the colonizers who staked their claims on land before the official opening date of lands in the western Oklahoma Territory or before the Indian Appropriations Act of 1889, which increased European-American settlement in the eastern Indian Territory. Oklahoma Territory and Indian Territory were merged into the State of Oklahoma when it became the 46th state to enter the union on November 16, 1907.

With ancient mountain ranges, prairie, mesas, and eastern forests, most of Oklahoma lies in the Great Plains, Cross Timbers, and the U.S. Interior Highlands, all regions prone to severe weather.[28] Oklahoma is at a confluence of three major American cultural regions. Historically it served as a government-sanctioned territory for Native Americans removed from east of the Mississippi River, a route for cattle drives from Texas and related regions, and a destination for Southern migrant settlers. Today twenty-five Native American languages are still spoken in Oklahoma.[29]

A major producer of natural gas, oil, and agricultural products, Oklahoma relies on an economic base of aviation, energy, telecommunications, and biotechnology.[30] Oklahoma City and Tulsa serve as Oklahoma's primary economic anchors, with nearly two-thirds of Oklahomans living within their metropolitan statistical areas.[31]