Oklahoma (/ˌkləˈhmə/ (listen);[25] Choctaw: Oklahumma [oklahómma];[26] Cherokee: ᎣᎧᎳᎰᎹ, Okalahoma [ògàlàhǒːmã́])[27] is a state in the South Central region of the United States,[28] bordered by Texas on the south and west, Kansas on the north, Missouri on the northeast, Arkansas on the east, New Mexico on the west, and Colorado on the northwest. Partially in the western extreme of the Upland South, it is the 20th-most extensive and the 28th-most populous of the 50 United States. Its residents are known as Oklahomans (or colloquially "Okies"), and its capital and largest city is Oklahoma City.

Oklahumma (Choctaw)
State of Oklahoma
  • Native America (official)
  • Land of the Red Man
  • Sooner State
Labor omnia vincit
(English: Work conquers all)
Anthem: "Oklahoma" and
"Oklahoma Hills"
Map of the United States with Oklahoma highlighted
CountryUnited States
Before statehood
Admitted to the UnionNovember 16, 1907; 115 years ago (1907-11-16) (46th)
(and largest city)
Oklahoma City
Largest metro and urban areasGreater Oklahoma City
  GovernorKevin Stitt (R)
  Lieutenant GovernorMatt Pinnell (R)
LegislatureOklahoma Legislature
  Upper houseSenate
  Lower houseHouse of Representatives
JudiciaryOklahoma Supreme Court (civil)
Oklahoma Court of Criminal Appeals (criminal)
U.S. senators
U.S. House delegation5 Republicans (list)
  Total69,898 sq mi (181,038 km2)
  Land68,595 sq mi (177,660 km2)
  Water1,304 sq mi (3,377 km2)  1.9%
  Length465 mi (749 km)
  Width230 mi (370 km)
1,300 ft (400 m)
Highest elevation4,975 ft (1,516 m)
Lowest elevation289 ft (88 m)
  Density55.20/sq mi (21.30/km2)
  Median household income
  Income rank
Okie (colloq.);
Sooner (historically)
  Official languageEnglish, Choctaw, Cherokee[lower-alpha 1][4][5][6]
Time zones
entire state (legally)UTC−06:00 (Central)
  Summer (DST)UTC−05:00 (CDT)
Kenton (informally)UTC−07:00 (Mountain)
  Summer (DST)UTC−06:00 (MDT)
USPS abbreviation
ISO 3166 codeUS-OK
Traditional abbreviationOkla.
Latitude33°37' N to 37° N
Longitude94° 26' W to 103° W
Oklahoma state symbols
Living insignia
BirdScissor-tailed Flycatcher[8]
FishSand bass[9]
GrassIndian Grass
InsectEuropean honey bee
MammalAmerican bison[10]
ReptileMountain Boomer
Inanimate insignia
ColorsWhite and green (vice versa)
DanceWaltz: Oklahoma Wind
DinosaurAcrocanthosaurus atokensis[12]
Folk danceSquare dance
FossilSaurophaganax maximus[13]
RockRose Rock
SoilPort Silt Loam
TartanOklahoma Tartan
State route marker
State quarter
Released in 2008, as part of the state quarters series. Oklahoma's state bird flying above its state wildflower.[24]
Lists of United States state symbols

The state's name is derived from the Choctaw words okla, 'people' and humma, which translates as 'red'.[29] Oklahoma is also known informally by its nickname, "The Sooner State", in reference to the settlers who staked their claims on land before the official opening date of lands in the western Oklahoma Territory or before the Indian Appropriations Act of 1889, which increased European-American settlement in the eastern Indian Territory. Oklahoma Territory and Indian Territory were merged into the State of Oklahoma when it became the 46th state to enter the union on November 16, 1907.

With ancient mountain ranges, prairie, mesas, and eastern forests, most of Oklahoma lies in the Great Plains, Cross Timbers, and the U.S. Interior Highlands, all regions prone to severe weather.[30] Oklahoma is at a confluence of three major American cultural regions. Historically it served as a government-sanctioned territory for Native Americans removed from east of the Mississippi River, a route for cattle drives from Texas and related regions, and a destination for Southern settlers. There are currently twenty-five Native American languages still spoken in Oklahoma.[31]

A major producer of natural gas, oil, and agricultural products, Oklahoma relies on an economic base of aviation, energy, telecommunications, and biotechnology.[32] Oklahoma City and Tulsa serve as Oklahoma's primary economic anchors, with nearly two-thirds of Oklahomans living within their metropolitan statistical areas.[33]

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