One-party period of the Republic of Turkey

The one-party period of the Republic of Turkey began with the formal establishment of the country in 1923. The Republican People's Party (CHP) was the only party between 1923 and 1945, when the National Development Party was established. After winning the first multiparty elections in 1946 by a landslide, the Republican People's Party lost the majority to the Democratic Party in the 1950 elections. During the single-party period, President Mustafa Kemal Atatürk repeatedly requested that opposition parties be established against the Republican People's Party in order to transition into multi-party democracy;[5] in 1930, the Liberal Republican Party was established but dissolved by its founder.[6] The Progressive Republican Party had also been established in 1924 by Kâzım Karabekir, but was banned after its members' involvement in the 1925 Sheikh Said rebellion. Despite Atatürk's efforts in establishing a self-propagating multi-party system during his presidency,[5] this was only established after his death in 1938.

Republic of Turkey
Türkiye Cumhuriyeti
Personification of Turkey with a map from 1927. By 1939, Turkey had annexed the Hatay State.
Official languagesTurkish[1]
Islam (official, until 18 April 1928)[2]
Secular state (de facto from 18 April 1928 to 5 February 1937, de jure after 5 February 1937)[2]
GovernmentUnitary Kemalist one-party state under an authoritarian[3][4] dictatorship
Kemal Atatürk
İsmet İnönü
Prime Minister 
 1923–1924 (first)
İsmet İnönü
 1942–1946 (last)
Şükrü Saracoğlu
LegislatureGrand National Assembly of Turkey
Historical eraInterwar period  · World War II
29 October 1923
18 July 1945
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Government of the Grand National Assembly
Multi-party period of the Republic of Turkey