Orkney (//; Scots: Orkney; Old Norse: Orkneyjar; Norn: Orknøjar), also known as the Orkney Islands, is an archipelago in the Northern Isles of Scotland, situated off the north coast of the island of Great Britain. Orkney is 10 miles (16 km) north of the coast of Caithness and has about 70 islands, of which 20 are inhabited. The largest island, Mainland, is often referred to as "the Mainland", and has an area of 523 square kilometres (202 sq mi), making it the sixth-largest Scottish island and the tenth-largest island in the British Isles. Orkney’s largest settlement, and also its administrative centre, is Kirkwall.
|Scottish Gaelic name||Arcaibh|
|Old Norse name||Orkneyjar|
|Meaning of name||"Ork" possibly originally from a Pictish tribal name meaning 'young pig'.|
|Island group||Northern Isles|
|Area||990 km2 (380 sq mi)|
|Highest elevation||Ward Hill|
|Sovereign state||United Kingdom|
|Council area||Orkney Islands Council|
|Population density||20/km2 (52/sq mi)|
Orkney is one of the 32 council areas of Scotland, as well as a constituency of the Scottish Parliament, a lieutenancy area, and a historic county. The local council is Orkney Islands Council, one of only three councils in Scotland with a majority of elected members who are independents.
The islands have been inhabited for at least 8,500 years, originally occupied by Mesolithic and Neolithic tribes and then by the Picts. Orkney was colonised and later annexed by Norway in 875 and settled by the Norse. In 1492, the Scottish Parliament absorbed the earldom into the Kingdom of Scotland, following the failure to pay a dowry promised to James III by the family of his bride, Margaret of Denmark.
Most of the islands, including the Mainland, fall into one of two groups—the North Isles or the South Isles—all of which have an underlying geological base of Old Red Sandstone. The climate is relatively mild and the soils are extremely fertile: Most of the land is farmed, and agriculture is the most important sector of the economy. The significant wind- and marine-energy resources are of growing importance; the amount of electricity that Orkney generates annually from renewable energy sources exceeds its demand.
The local people are known as Orcadians; they speak a distinctive dialect of the Scots language and have inherited a rich body of folklore. Orkney contains some of the oldest and best-preserved Neolithic sites in Europe; the "Heart of Neolithic Orkney" is a designated UNESCO World Heritage Site. Orkney also has an abundance of marine and avian wildlife.
Pytheas of Massilia visited Britain – probably sometime between 322 and 285 BC – and described it as triangular in shape, with a northern tip called Orcas. This may have referred to Dunnet Head, from which Orkney is visible. Writing in the 1st century AD, the Roman geographer Pomponius Mela called the islands Orcades, as did Tacitus in 98 AD, claiming that his father-in-law Agricola had "discovered and subjugated the Orcades hitherto unknown" (although both Mela and Pliny had previously referred to the islands).
Etymologists usually interpret the element orc- as a Pictish tribal name meaning "young pig" or "young boar". Speakers of Old Irish referred to the islands as Insi Orc "islands of the young pigs". The archipelago is known as Ynysoedd Erch in modern Welsh and Arcaibh in modern Scottish Gaelic, the -aibh representing a fossilized prepositional case ending. Some earlier sources alternately hypothesise that Orkney comes from the Latin orca, whale. The Anglo-Saxon monk Bede refers to the islands as Orcades insulae in Ecclesiastical History of the English People.
Norwegian settlers arriving from the late ninth century reinterpreted orc as the Old Norse orkn "seal" and added eyjar "islands" to the end, so the name became Orkneyjar "Seal Islands". The plural suffix -jar was later removed in English leaving the modern name Orkney. According to the Historia Norwegiæ, Orkney was named after an earl called Orkan.
The Norse knew Mainland, Orkney as Megenland "Mainland" or as Hrossey "Horse Island". The island is sometimes referred to as Pomona (or Pomonia), a name that stems from a 16th-century mistranslation by George Buchanan, which has rarely been used locally.
A charred hazelnut shell, recovered in 2007 during excavations in Tankerness on the Mainland has been dated to 6820–6660 BC indicating the presence of Mesolithic nomadic tribes. The earliest known permanent settlement is at Knap of Howar, a Neolithic farmstead on the island of Papa Westray, which dates from 3500 BC. The village of Skara Brae, Europe's best-preserved Neolithic settlement, is believed to have been inhabited from around 3100 BC. Other remains from that era include the Standing Stones of Stenness, the Maeshowe passage grave, the Ring of Brodgar and other standing stones. Many of the Neolithic settlements were abandoned around 2500 BC, possibly due to changes in the climate.
During the Bronze Age fewer large stone structures were built although the great ceremonial circles continued in use as metalworking was slowly introduced to Britain from Europe over a lengthy period. There are relatively few Orcadian sites dating from this era although there is the impressive Plumcake Mound near the Ring of Brodgar and various islands sites such as Tofts Ness on Sanday and the remains of two houses on Holm of Faray.
Excavations at Quanterness on the Mainland have revealed an Atlantic roundhouse built about 700 BC and similar finds have been made at Bu on the Mainland and Pierowall Quarry on Westray. The most impressive Iron Age structures of Orkney are the ruins of later round towers called "brochs" and their associated settlements such as the Broch of Burroughston and Broch of Gurness. The nature and origin of these buildings is a subject of ongoing debate. Other structures from this period include underground storehouses, and aisled roundhouses, the latter usually in association with earlier broch sites.
During the Roman invasion of Britain the "King of Orkney" was one of 11 British leaders who is said to have submitted to the Emperor Claudius in AD 43 at Colchester. After the Agricolan fleet had come and gone, possibly anchoring at Shapinsay, direct Roman influence seems to have been limited to trade rather than conquest.
However, Polemius Silvius wrote a list of Late Roman provinces, which Seeck appended to his edition of the Notitia Dignitatum. The list is famous because it names six provinces in Roman Britannia: the sixth is the dubious "Orcades provincia", of which recent researches re-evaluate the possibility of real existence.
By the late Iron Age, Orkney was part of the Pictish kingdom, and although the archaeological remains from this period are less impressive there is every reason to suppose the fertile soils and rich seas of Orkney provided the Picts with a comfortable living. The Dalriadic Gaels began to influence the islands towards the close of the Pictish era, perhaps principally through the role of Celtic missionaries, as evidenced by several islands bearing the epithet "Papa" in commemoration of these preachers. However, before the Gaelic presence could establish itself the Picts were gradually dispossessed by the Norse from the late 8th century onwards. The nature of this transition is controversial, and theories range from peaceful integration to enslavement and genocide. It has been suggested that an assault by forces from Fortriu in 681 in which Orkney was "annihilated" may have led to a weakening of the local power base and helped the Norse come to prominence.
Both Orkney and Shetland saw a significant influx of Norwegian settlers during the late 8th and early 9th centuries. Vikings made the islands the headquarters of their pirate expeditions carried out against Norway and the coasts of mainland Scotland. In response, Norwegian king Harald Fairhair (Harald Hårfagre) annexed the Northern Isles, comprising Orkney and Shetland, in 875. (It is clear that this story, which appears in the Orkneyinga Saga, is based on the later voyages of Magnus Barelegs and some scholars believe it to be apocryphal.) Rognvald Eysteinsson received Orkney and Shetland from Harald as an earldom as reparation for the death of his son in battle in Scotland, and then passed the earldom on to his brother Sigurd the Mighty.
However, Sigurd's line barely survived him and it was Torf-Einarr, Rognvald's son by a slave, who founded a dynasty that controlled the islands for centuries after his death. He was succeeded by his son Thorfinn Skull-splitter and during this time the deposed Norwegian King Eric Bloodaxe often used Orkney as a raiding base before being killed in 954. Thorfinn's death and presumed burial at the broch of Hoxa, on South Ronaldsay, led to a long period of dynastic strife.
Initially a pagan culture, detailed information about the turn to the Christian religion to the islands of Scotland during the Norse-era is elusive. The Orkneyinga Saga suggests the islands were Christianised by Olaf Tryggvasson in 995 when he stopped at South Walls on his way from Ireland to Norway. The King summoned the jarl Sigurd the Stout and said, "I order you and all your subjects to be baptised. If you refuse, I'll have you killed on the spot and I swear I will ravage every island with fire and steel." Unsurprisingly, Sigurd agreed and the islands became Christian at a stroke, receiving their own bishop in the early 11th century.
Thorfinn the Mighty was a son of Sigurd and a grandson of King Malcolm II of Scotland (Máel Coluim mac Cináeda). Along with Sigurd's other sons he ruled Orkney during the first half of the 11th century and extended his authority over a small maritime empire stretching from Dublin to Shetland. Thorfinn died around 1065 and his sons Paul and Erlend succeeded him, fighting at the Battle of Stamford Bridge in 1066. Paul and Erlend quarreled as adults and this dispute carried on to the next generation. The martyrdom of Magnus Erlendsson, who was killed in April 1116 by his cousin Haakon Paulsson, resulted in the building of St. Magnus Cathedral, still today a dominating feature of Kirkwall.
Unusually, from c. 1100 onwards the Norse jarls owed allegiance both to Norway for Orkney and to the Scottish crown through their holdings as Earls of Caithness. In 1231 the line of Norse earls, unbroken since Rognvald, ended with Jon Haraldsson's murder in Thurso. The Earldom of Caithness was granted to Magnus, second son of the Earl of Angus, whom Haakon IV of Norway confirmed as Earl of Orkney in 1236. In 1290, the death of the child princess Margaret, Maid of Norway in Orkney, en route to mainland Scotland, created a disputed succession that led to the Wars of Scottish Independence. In 1379 the earldom passed to the Sinclair family, who were also barons of Roslin near Edinburgh.
Absorbed by Scotland
In 1468 Orkney was pledged by Christian I, in his capacity as King of Norway, as security against the payment of the dowry of his daughter Margaret, betrothed to James III of Scotland. However the money was never paid, and Orkney was absorbed by the Kingdom of Scotland in 1472.
The history of Orkney prior to this time is largely the history of the ruling aristocracy. From now on the ordinary people emerge with greater clarity. An influx of Scottish entrepreneurs helped to create a diverse and independent community that included farmers, fishermen and merchants that called themselves comunitas Orcadie and who proved themselves increasingly able to defend their rights against their feudal overlords.
From at least the 16th century, boats from mainland Scotland and the Netherlands dominated the local herring fishery. There is little evidence of an Orcadian fleet until the 19th century but it grew rapidly and 700 boats were involved by the 1840s with Stronsay and later Stromness becoming leading centres of development. White fish never became as dominant as in other Scottish ports.
In the 17th century, Orcadians formed the overwhelming majority of employees of the Hudson's Bay Company in Canada. The harsh winter weather of Orkney and the Orcadian reputation for sobriety and their boat handling skills made them ideal candidates for the rigours of the Canadian north. During this period, burning kelp briefly became a mainstay of the islands' economy. For example on Shapinsay over 3,000 long tons (3,048 t) of burned seaweed were produced per annum to make soda ash, bringing in £20,000 to the local economy. The industry collapsed suddenly in 1830 after the removal of tariffs on imported alkali.
Agricultural improvements beginning in the 17th century resulted in the enclosure of the commons and ultimately in the Victoria era the emergence of large and well-managed farms using a five-shift rotation system and producing high-quality beef cattle.
During the 18th century Jacobite risings, Orkney was largely Jacobite in its sympathies. At the end of the 1715 rebellion, a large number of Jacobites who had fled north from mainland Scotland sought refuge in Orkney and were helped on to safety in Sweden. In 1745, the Jacobite lairds on the islands ensured that Orkney remained pro-Jacobite in outlook, and was a safe place to land supplies from Spain to aid their cause. Orkney was the last place in the British Isles that held out for the Jacobites and was not retaken by the British Government until 24 May 1746, over a month after the defeat of the main Jacobite army at Culloden.
Orkney was the site of a Royal Navy base at Scapa Flow, which played a major role in World War I and II. After the Armistice in 1918, the German High Seas Fleet was transferred in its entirety to Scapa Flow to await a decision on its future. The German sailors opened the sea-cocks and scuttled all the ships. Most ships were salvaged, but the remaining wrecks are now a favoured haunt of recreational divers. One month into World War II, a German U-boat sank the Royal Navy battleship HMS Royal Oak in Scapa Flow. As a result, barriers were built to close most of the access channels; these had the additional advantage of creating causeways enabling travellers to go from island to island by road instead of being obliged to rely on ferries. The causeways were constructed by Italian prisoners of war, who also constructed the ornate Italian Chapel.
The navy base became run down after the war, eventually closing in 1957. The problem of a declining population was significant in the post-war years, though in the last decades of the 20th century there was a recovery and life in Orkney focused on growing prosperity and the emergence of a relatively classless society. Orkney was rated as the best place to live in Scotland in both 2013 and 2014, and in 2019 the best place to live in the UK, according to the Halifax Quality of Life survey.
Overview of population trends
In the modern era, population peaked in the mid 19th century at just over 32,000 and declined for a century thereafter to a low of fewer than 18,000 in the 1970s. Declines were particularly significant in the outlying islands, some of which remain vulnerable to ongoing losses. Although Orkney is in many ways very distinct from the other islands and archipelagos of Scotland these trends are very similar to those experienced elsewhere. The archipelago's population grew by 11% in the decade to 2011 as recorded by the census. During the same period Scottish island populations as a whole grew by 4% to 103,702.
Orkney is separated from the mainland of Scotland by the Pentland Firth, a ten-kilometre-wide (6 mi)seaway between Brough Ness on the island of South Ronaldsay and Duncansby Head in Caithness. Orkney lies between 58°41′ and 59°24′ north, and 2°22′ and 3°26′ west, measuring 80 kilometres (50 mi) from northeast to southwest and 47 kilometres (29 mi) from east to west, and covers 975 square kilometres (376 sq mi).
The islands are mainly low-lying except for some sharply rising sandstone hills on Mainland, Rousay and Hoy (where the tallest point in Orkney, Ward Hill, can be found) and rugged cliffs on some western coasts. Nearly all of the islands have lochs, but the watercourses are merely streams draining the high land. The coastlines are indented, and the islands themselves are divided from each other by straits generally called "sounds" or "firths".
The tidal currents, or "roosts" as some of them are called locally, off many of the isles are swift, with frequent whirlpools. The islands are notable for the absence of trees, which is partly accounted for by the strong winds.
The Local Government (Scotland) Act 1889 established a uniform system of county councils in Scotland and realigned the boundaries of many of Scotland's counties. Subsequently, Orkney County Council was created in 1890. Orkney County Council was based at the County Offices in School Place in Kirkwall.
Orkney is now administered by the Orkney Islands Council, a unitary island council created in the Scottish local government re-organization in 1975. In that year Scotland’s civil parishes were replaced by Community Council Areas, which had an advisory, rather than an administrative role. Orkney’s parishes were replaced by 20 CCA’s covering 34 rural settlements. Ten of these CCA’s were formed on Mainland, replacing 13 civil parish and two burgh councils.
- Birsay and Harray (united in the 19th century)
- Cross and Burness (united at an unknown date)
- Evie and Rendall (united in the 16th century)
- Hoy & Graemsay
- Kirkwall & St Ola
- Papa Westray
- Rousay & Egilsay
- South Ronaldsay and Burray (union of ancient parishes of St Mary's, St Peter's, and Burray)
- St Andrews and Deerness (united at an unknown date)
- Stronsay (union of ancient parishes of Lady, St Nicholas, and Stronsay St Peter's)
- Walls and Flotta (united at an unknown date)
The Mainland is the largest island of Orkney. Both of Orkney's burghs, Kirkwall and Stromness, are on this island, which is also the heart of Orkney's transport system, with ferry and air connections to the other islands and to the outside world. The island is more heavily populated (75% of Orkney's population) than the other islands and has much fertile farmland. The Mainland is split into areas called East and West Mainland. These areas are determined by whether they lie East or West of Kirkwall. The bulk of the mainland lies west of Kirkwall, with comparatively little land east of Kirkwall. West Mainland parishes are: Stromness, Sandwick, Birsay, Harray, Stenness, Orphir, Evie, Rendall and Firth. East Mainland Parishes are: St Ola, Tankerness, St Andrews, Holm and Deerness.
The island is mostly low-lying (especially East Mainland) but with coastal cliffs to the north and west and two sizeable lochs: the Loch of Harray and the Loch of Stenness. The Mainland contains the remnants of numerous Neolithic, Pictish and Viking constructions. Four of the main Neolithic sites are included in the Heart of Neolithic Orkney World Heritage Site, inscribed in 1999.
The other islands in the group are classified as north or south of the Mainland. Exceptions are the remote islets of Sule Skerry and Sule Stack, which lie 60 kilometres (37 mi) west of the archipelago, but form part of Orkney for local government purposes. In island names, the suffix "a" or "ay" represents the Norse ey, meaning "island". Those described as "holms" are very small.
The North Isles
The northern group of islands is the most extensive and consists of a large number of moderately sized islands, linked to the Mainland by ferries and by air services. Farming, fishing and tourism are the main sources of income for most of the islands.
The most northerly is North Ronaldsay, which lies 4 kilometres (2 mi) beyond its nearest neighbour, Sanday. To the west is Westray, which has a population of 550. It is connected by ferry and air to Papa Westray, also known as "Papay". Eday is at the centre of the North Isles. The centre of the island is moorland and the island's main industries have been peat extraction and limestone quarrying.
Rousay, Egilsay and Gairsay lie north of the west Mainland across the Eynhallow Sound. Rousay is well known for its ancient monuments, including the Quoyness chambered cairn and Egilsay has the ruins of the only round-towered church in Orkney. Wyre to the south-east contains the site of Cubbie Roo's castle. Stronsay and Papa Stronsay lie much further to the east across the Stronsay Firth. Auskerry is south of Stronsay and has a population of only five. Shapinsay and its Balfour Castle are a short distance north of Kirkwall.
Other small uninhabited islands in the North Isles group include: Calf of Eday, Damsay, Eynhallow, Faray, Helliar Holm, Holm of Faray, Holm of Huip, Holm of Papa, Holm of Scockness, Kili Holm, Linga Holm, Muckle Green Holm, Rusk Holm and Sweyn Holm.
The South Isles
The southern group of islands surrounds Scapa Flow. Hoy, to the west, is the second largest of the Orkney Isles and Ward Hill at its northern end is the highest elevation in the archipelago. The Old Man of Hoy is a well-known seastack. Graemsay and Flotta are both linked by ferry to the Mainland and Hoy, and the latter is known for its large oil terminal. South Walls has a 19th-century Martello tower and is connected to Hoy by the Ayre. Burray lies to the east of Scapa Flow and is linked by causeway to South Ronaldsay, which hosts the cultural events, the Festival of the Horse and the Boys' Ploughing Match on the third Saturday in August. It is also the location of the Neolithic Tomb of the Eagles. South Ronaldsay, Burray, Glimps Holm, and Lamb Holm are connected by road to the Mainland by the Churchill Barriers.
Uninhabited South Islands include: Calf of Flotta, Cava, Copinsay, Corn Holm, Fara, Glimps Holm, Hunda, Lamb Holm, Rysa Little, Switha and Swona. The Pentland Skerries lie further south, closer to the Scottish mainland.
The superficial rock of Orkney is almost entirely Old Red Sandstone, mostly of Middle Devonian age. As in the neighbouring mainland county of Caithness, this sandstone rests upon the metamorphic rocks of the Moine series, as may be seen on the Mainland, where a narrow strip is exposed between Stromness and Inganess, and again in the small island of Graemsay; they are represented by grey gneiss and granite.
The Middle Devonian is divided into three main groups. The lower part of the sequence, mostly Eifelian in age, is dominated by lacustrine beds of the lower and upper Stromness Flagstones that were deposited in Lake Orcadie. The later Rousay flagstone formation is found throughout much of the North and South Isles and East Mainland.
The Old Man of Hoy is formed from sandstone of the uppermost Eday group that is up to 800 metres (870 yd) thick in places. It lies unconformably upon steeply inclined flagstones, the interpretation of which is a matter of continuing debate.
The Devonian and older rocks of Orkney are cut by a series of WSW–ENE to N–S trending faults, many of which were active during deposition of the Devonian sequences. A strong synclinal fold traverses Eday and Shapinsay, the axis trending north-south.
Middle Devonian basaltic volcanic rocks are found on western Hoy, on Deerness in eastern Mainland and on Shapinsay. Correlation between the Hoy volcanics and the other two exposures has been proposed, but differences in chemistry means this remains uncertain. Lamprophyre dykes of Late Permian age are found throughout Orkney.
Glacial striation and the presence of chalk and flint erratics that originated from the bed of the North Sea demonstrate the influence of ice action on the geomorphology of the islands. Boulder clay is also abundant and moraines cover substantial areas.
Orkney has a cool temperate climate that is remarkably mild and steady for such a northerly latitude, due to the influence of the Gulf Stream. The average temperature for the year is 8 °C (46 °F); for winter 4 °C (39 °F) and for summer 12 °C (54 °F).
The average annual rainfall varies from 850 millimetres (33 in) to 940 millimetres (37 in). Winds are a key feature of the climate and even in summer there are almost constant breezes. In winter, there are frequent strong winds, with an average of 52 hours of gales being recorded annually.
To tourists, one of the fascinations of the islands is their "nightless" summers. On the longest day, the sun rises at 04:00 and sets at 22:29 BST and complete darkness is unknown. This long twilight is known in the Northern Isles as the "simmer dim". Winter nights are long. On the shortest day the sun rises at 09:05 and sets at 15:16. At this time of year the aurora borealis can occasionally be seen on the northern horizon during moderate auroral activity.
|Climate data for Kirkwall, 26m asl, 1981–2010, Extremes 1951–|
|Record high °C (°F)||12.2
|Average high °C (°F)||6.4
|Average low °C (°F)||1.9
|Record low °C (°F)||−7.8
|Average rainfall mm (inches)||109.7
|Average rainy days (≥ 1.0 mm)||20.1||16.8||17.9||13.4||10.6||10.7||11.6||12.5||16.2||19.6||20.8||18.5||188.7|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||32.2||59.3||98.2||136.8||190.0||148.6||132.2||129.7||105.3||75.8||40.1||24.5||1,172.4|
|Source 1: Met Office|
|Source 2: Royal Dutch Meteorological Institute/KNMI|
|Climate data for Orkney: Loch of Hundland, 28m asl, 1981–2010|
|Average high °C (°F)||6.4
|Average low °C (°F)||1.4
|Average rainfall mm (inches)||118.5
|Average rainy days (≥ 1.0 mm)||21.4||16.9||19.5||13.1||10.2||11.3||10.9||12.0||14.5||19.1||21.5||21.2||191.5|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||25.9||62.1||95.4||150.4||205.6||154.1||135.7||136.4||99.2||73.6||37.0||22.3||1,197.7|
Orkney is represented in the House of Commons as part of the Orkney and Shetland constituency, which elects one Member of Parliament (MP), the current incumbent being Alistair Carmichael. This seat has been held by the Liberal Democrats or the former Liberal Party since 1950, longer than any other they represent in Great Britain.
In the Scottish Parliament the Orkney constituency elects one Member of the Scottish Parliament (MSP) by the first past the post system. The current MSP is Liam McArthur of the Liberal Democrats. Before McArthur the MSP was Jim Wallace, who was previously Deputy First Minister. Orkney is within the Highlands and Islands electoral region.
Orkney Islands Council consists of 21 members, 18 of whom are independent, that is they do not stand as representatives of a political party. Two councillors are members of the indigenous Orkney Manifesto Group, and the remaining councillor represents the Scottish Greens.
The Orkney Movement, a political party that supported devolution for Orkney from the rest of Scotland, contested the 1987 general election as the Orkney and Shetland Movement (a coalition of the Orkney movement and its equivalent for Shetland). The Scottish National Party chose not to contest the seat to give the movement a "free run". Their candidate, John Goodlad, came 4th with 3,095 votes, 14.5% of those cast, but the experiment has not been repeated.
In the 2014 Scottish independence referendum 67.2% of voters in Orkney voted No to the question "Should Scotland be an independent country?" This was the highest No vote by percentage in any council area in Scotland. Turnout for the referendum was at 83.7% in Orkney with 10,004 votes cast in the area against independence by comparison to 4,883 votes for independence.
In the 2016 United Kingdom European Union membership referendum 63.2% of voters in Orkney voted Remain.
The soil of Orkney is generally very fertile and most of the land is taken up by farms, agriculture being by far the most important sector of the economy and providing employment for a quarter of the workforce according to a 2008 report. More than 90% of agricultural land is used for grazing for sheep and cattle, with cereal production utilising about 4% (4,200 hectares (10,000 acres)) and woodland occupying only 134 hectares (330 acres).
Fishing has declined in importance, but still employed 345 individuals in 2001, about 3.5% of the islands' economically active population, the modern industry concentrating on herring, white fish, lobsters, crabs and other shellfish, and salmon fish farming.
A 2009 report indicated the traditional sectors of the economy export beef, cheese, whisky, beer, fish and other seafood. In recent years there has been growth in other areas including tourism, food and beverage manufacture, jewellery, knitwear, and other crafts production, construction and oil transportation through the Flotta oil terminal. Retailing accounts for 17.5% of total employment, and public services also play a significant role, employing a third of the islands' workforce.
In 2007, of the 1,420 VAT registered enterprises 55% were in agriculture, forestry and fishing, 12% in manufacturing and construction, 12% in wholesale, retail and repairs, and 5% in hotels and restaurants. A further 5% were public service related. 55% of these businesses employ between 5 and 49 people.
there are around 1,500 businesses on the island. More than 90% have fewer than 10 employees. [Estimates indicate] 11,000 jobs, of which around 5,000 are part-time ... There's not much manufacturing, beyond food and drink processing (think cheese and whisky), and apart from the Flotta oil terminal, it lacks big private employers ... Fisheries off Orkney are only half as important to employment as in Shetland, and farming is roughly twice as important.
The report expressed concern about the loss of business caused by the worldwide COVID-19 pandemic: "blighting business activity, travel and tourism". On 1 February 2021, a new plan (subsequent to previous funding schemes) from the Scottish government was announced. The Island Equivalent Payment Fund was designed to "provide the equivalent of Level 4 support to eligible businesses in Orkney and other island areas".
A report published in February 2020 stated that spending by visitors increased from £49.5 million in 2017 to £67.1 million in 2019, making this a significant sector of the economy. The primary attractions that encourage tourism include the "Heart of Neolithic Orkney" on the main island, defined as "a group of 5,000-year-old sites that include the preserved village of Skara Brae and the Ring of Brodgar stone circle". The Hoy area's landscape is also attractive to visitors, "with its scattered woodland, steep valleys, high cliffs and the famous Old Man, a withered red sandstone sea stack".
During most years, the islands are the home of several international festivals, including the Orkney International Science Festival in September, a folk festival in May, and the St Magnus International Arts Festival in June.
The volume of visitors arriving on ferries declined substantially in 2020, by 71%, due to the COVID-19 pandemic A news report added that cruise ships also did not arrive and there were "no day trippers and no holiday lets" as of 25 April 2020. Several major events were cancelled: St Magnus Festival, Orkney Folk Festival, Stromness Shopping Week and the Agricultural Shows.
Orkney has significant wind and marine energy resources, and renewable energy has recently come into prominence. Although Orkney is connected to the mainland, it generates over 100% of its net power from renewables according to a 2015 report. This comes mainly from wind turbines situated across Orkney.
The European Marine Energy Centre (EMEC) is a research facility operating a grid-connected wave test site at Billia Croo, off the west coast of the Orkney Mainland, and a tidal power test site in the Fall of Warness, off the northern island of Eday. At the official opening of the Eday project the site was described as "the first of its kind in the world set up to provide developers of wave and tidal energy devices with a purpose-built performance testing facility."
During 2007 Scottish and Southern Energy plc in conjunction with the University of Strathclyde began the implementation of a Regional Power Zone in the Orkney archipelago, involving "active network management" that will make better use of existing infrastructure and allow a further 15 MW of new "non-firm generation" output from renewables onto the network. 1.5 MW of polymer electrolyte membrane electrolysis form a partial hydrogen economy for hydrogen vehicles and district heating, and grid batteries and electric vehicles also use local energy.
A March 2019 report by the BBC stated that "Orkney creates more clean electricity than its inhabitants need. Even after exporting to the UK national grid, the islands' winds, waves and tides generate about 130% of the electricity its population needs – all of it from clean sources". A report about sustainable energy in the islands listed two options. A new cable could be laid for exporting of energy to the mainland but another proposal has progressed rapidly since that time: making "excess renewable power into another fuel – such as hydrogen – and then [storing] it".
In May 2020, CNN published more specifics about the hydrogen plan:
"Orkney's success in creating hydrogen using clean energy demonstrates that it can be done at scale. The islands are already using hydrogen to power vehicles, and it will soon be used to heat a local primary school. Now, Orkney is hoping to use hydrogen fuel cells to power a seagoing vessel able to transport both goods and passengers".
Additional specifics about the status of the hydrogen scheme were published in late November 2020 by Orkney Islands Council. A few weeks earlier, another report indicated that the world’s first hydrogen-fueled ferry was to be tested on the Orkney Islands, using "a hydrogen/diesel dual fuel conversion system", developed by a consortium known as the HyDIME project. Initially hydrogen was to power only the auxiliary engine but the plan calls for later using this fuel for the primary engine. The report suggested that, "if all goes well, hydrogen ferries could be sailing between Orkney’s islands within six months".
Kirkwall Airport in Orkney was scheduled "to have its heat and power decarbonised through green hydrogen as part of a new project" starting in 2021. A hydrogen combustion engine system was to be connected to the airport’s heating system. The scheme planned to reduce the significant emissions that were created with older technology that heated buildings and water. This was part of the plan formulated by the Scottish government for the Highlands and Islands "to become the world’s first net zero aviation region by 2040".
Hydrogen manufacturing is also planned for Shetland and will spread to other areas of Scotland that have access to "clean" electricity. To achieve that goal, the government announced an investment of £100 million in the hydrogen sector "for the £180 million Emerging Energy Technologies Fund".
Highland and Islands Airports operates the main airport in Orkney, Kirkwall Airport. Loganair provides services to the Scottish mainland (Aberdeen, Edinburgh, Glasgow and Inverness), as well as to Sumburgh Airport in Shetland.
Within Orkney, the council operates airports on most of the larger islands including Stronsay, Eday, North Ronaldsay, Westray, Papa Westray, Sanday, and Flotta. The shortest scheduled air service in the world, between the islands of Westray and Papa Westray, is scheduled at two minutes' duration but can take less than one minute if the wind is in the right direction.
Ferries serve both to link Orkney to the rest of Scotland, and also to link together the various islands of the Orkney archipelago. Ferry services operate between Orkney and the Scottish mainland and Shetland on the following routes:
- Gills Bay to St Margaret's Hope (operated by Pentland Ferries)
- John o' Groats to Burwick on South Ronaldsay (seasonal passenger only service, operated by John o' Groats Ferries)
- Lerwick to Kirkwall (operated by NorthLink Ferries)
- Aberdeen to Kirkwall (operated by NorthLink Ferries)
- Scrabster Harbour, Thurso to Stromness (operated by NorthLink Ferries)
Inter-island ferry services connect all the inhabited islands to Orkney Mainland, and are operated by Orkney Ferries, a company owned by Orkney Islands Council. The isles of Westray, Papa Westray (or Papay), North Ronaldsay, Sanday, Eday, Stronsay, and Shapinsay are served from Kirkwall harbour, while the northern end of Hoy and Graemsay are served from Stromness harbour, the Lyness end of Hoy and Flotta are served from Houton on the south of the mainland, and Rousay, Egilsay and Wyre are served from Tingwall, in the Rendall area of the Orkney mainland. As well as this, the MV Golden Mariana connects the village of Pierowall on Westray with Papa Westray - this provides a vital local service for schoolchildren on Papay as well as supplementing existing through sailings from Kirkwall.
Local buses around the Orkney Mainland, as well as across the Churchill Barriers to Burray and South Ronaldsay, are operated by Stagecoach in Orkney. The main route is the X1, connecting Stromness, Stenness for Maeshowe, Finstown, Kirkwall, St Mary's, Burray, and St Margaret's Hope. There are also buses from Kirkwall via Orphir (2), and from Stromness (5), to the ferry terminal at Houton (from which inter-island ferries operate to Hoy and Flotta, from Kirkwall to Kirkwall Airport (3 & 4), Tankerness and Deerness (3), from Kirkwall and Finstown to Tingwall (from which there are ferries to Rousay, Egilsay and Wyre), Evie and Birsay, from Stromness to Kirkwall via Skara Brae, Dounby, Harray and Finstown (7), the 8 (which does a circular route to and from Kirkwall and Finstown via Stromness and the West Mainland villages, such as Marwick, Quoyloo, Dounby and Stenness), and the X10, which connects the late-night call of the NorthLink ferry to and from Aberdeen and Lerwick, at Hatston Ferry Terminal, to Kirkwall, Finstown and Stromness.
Orkney is served by a weekly local newspaper, The Orcadian, published on Thursdays.
A local BBC radio station, BBC Radio Orkney, the local opt-out of BBC Radio Scotland, broadcasts twice daily, with local news and entertainment. Orkney also had a commercial radio station, The Superstation Orkney, which broadcast to Kirkwall and parts of the mainland and also to most of Caithness until its closure in November 2014. Moray Firth Radio broadcasts throughout Orkney on AM and from an FM transmitter just outside Thurso. The community radio station Caithness FM also broadcasts to Orkney.
Orkney is home to the Orkney Library and Archive, located in Kirkwall, Scotland, on the mainland. The Library service provides access to over 145,000 items. They have a wide range of fiction and non-fiction titles available for loan as well as audiobooks, maps, eBooks, music CDs, and DVDs. Orkney Library and Archive operates a Mobile Library Service that serves the rural parishes and islands of Orkney. The Mobile Library carries a wide range of books and audio books suitable for all ages and is completely free to use.
Language, literature, and folklore
At the beginning of recorded history, the islands were inhabited by the Picts, whose language was Brythonic. The Ogham script on the Buckquoy spindle-whorl is cited as evidence for the pre-Norse existence of Old Irish in Orkney.
After the Norse occupation, the toponymy of Orkney became almost wholly West Norse. The Norse language changed into the local Norn, which lingered until the end of the 18th century, when it eventually died out. Norn was replaced by the Orcadian dialect of Insular Scots. This dialect is at a low ebb due to the pervasive influences of television, education, and the large number of incomers. However, attempts are being made by some writers and radio presenters to revitalise its use and the distinctive sing-song accent and many dialect words of Norse origin remain in use. The Orcadian word most frequently encountered by visitors is peedie, meaning small, which may be derived from the French petit.
Orkney has a rich folklore, and many of the former tales concern trows, an Orcadian form of troll that draws on the islands' Scandinavian connections. Local customs in the past included marriage ceremonies at the Odin Stone that formed part of the Stones of Stenness.
An Orcadian is a native of Orkney, a term that reflects a strongly held identity with a tradition of understatement. Although the annexation of the earldom by Scotland took place over five centuries ago in 1472, some Orcadians regard themselves as Orcadians first and Scots second. However in response to the national identity question in the 2011 Scotland Census, self-reported levels of Scottish identity in Orkney were in line with the national average.
The Scottish mainland is often referred to as "Scotland" in Orkney, with "the mainland" referring to Mainland, Orkney. The archipelago also has a distinct culture, with traditions of the Scottish Highlands such as tartan, clans, bagpipes not indigenous to the culture of the islands. However, at least two tartans with Orkney connections have been registered and a tartan has been designed for Sanday by one of the island's residents, and there are pipe bands in Orkney.
Native Orcadians refer to the non-native residents of the islands as "ferry loupers", ("loup" meaning "jump" in the Scots language) a term that has been in use for nearly two centuries at least.
Orkney has an abundance of wildlife, especially of grey and common seals and seabirds such as puffins, kittiwakes, black guillemots (tysties), ravens, and great skuas (bonxies). Whales, dolphins, and otters are also seen around the coasts. Inland the Orkney vole, a distinct subspecies of the common vole introduced by Neolithic humans, is an endemic. There are five distinct varieties, found on the islands of Sanday, Westray, Rousay, South Ronaldsay, and the Mainland, all the more remarkable as the species is absent on mainland Britain.
The coastline is well known for its colourful flowers including sea aster, sea squill, sea thrift, common sea-lavender, bell and common heather. The Scottish primrose is found only on the coasts of Orkney and nearby Caithness and Sutherland. Although stands of trees are generally rare, a small forest named Happy Valley with 700 trees and lush gardens was created from a boggy hillside near Stenness during the second half of the 20th century.
The North Ronaldsay sheep is an unusual breed of domesticated animal, subsisting largely on a diet of seaweed, since they are confined to the foreshore for most of the year to conserve the limited grazing inland. The island was also a habitat for the Atlantic walrus until the mid-16th century.
Stoat problem and solution
The introduction of alien stoats since 2010, a natural predator of the common vole and thus of the Orkney vole, was also harming native bird populations. NatureScot, Scotland's Nature Agency, provided these additional specifics:
The introduction of a ground predator like the stoat to islands such as Orkney, where there are no native ground predators, is very bad news for Orkney’s native species. Stoats are accomplished predators and pose a very serious threat to Orkney’s wildlife, including: the native Orkney vole, hen harrier, short-eared owl and many ground nesting birds.
In 2018, a stoat eradication project was presented by NatureScot to be applied "across Orkney Mainland, South Ronaldsay, Burray, Glimps Holm, Lamb Holm and Hunda, and the biosecurity activities delivered on the non-linked islands of the archipelago". The Orkney Native Wildlife Project planned to use "humane DOC150 and DOC200 traps". The Partners in the five-year project include "RSPB Scotland, Scottish Natural Heritage (SNH), and Orkney Islands Council". A report issued in October 2020 stated that over 5,000 traps had been deployed. Specifics were provided as to the locations.
Not all was going well as of 15 January 2021, according to The Times which stated that the project "has been hit by alleged sabotage after the destruction and theft of traps that have also killed and injured household pets and other animals" but added that the £6 million program was supported by most islanders. Another news item stated that some of the traps had "caught and killed family pets as well as hundreds of other animals". A subsequent report confirmed that "Police Scotland is investigating a number of incidents involving damage to and the theft of stoat traps in Orkney".
There are 13 Special Protection Areas and 6 Special Areas of Conservation in Orkney. One of Scotland's 40 national scenic areas, the Hoy and West Mainland National Scenic Area, is also located in the islands. The seas to the northwest of Orkney are important for sand eels that provides a food source for many species of fish, seabirds, seals, whales and dolphins, and are now protected as Nature Conservation Marine Protected Area (NCMPA) that covers 4,365 km2 (1,685 sq mi).
Freedom of the Island
The following people and military units have received the Freedom of the Island of Orkney.
- The Northern Diving Group Royal Navy: 9 July 2021.
- Timeline of prehistoric Scotland
- Prehistoric Scotland
- Battle of Florvåg
- Bishop of Orkney
- Coat of arms of Orkney
- List of places in Orkney
- Orkney Club
- Orkney College
- Rögnvald Kali Kolsson
- Udal Law
- Parishes of Orkney
- Constitutional status of Orkney, Shetland and the Western Isles
- Solar eclipse of 1 May 1185
- "The Orkneys" is used by non-Orcadians and does have historical precedent, yet it is clear that this is frowned upon by the residents.
- The other independent-run councils are Shetland and Comhairle nan Eilean Siar. Moray is run by a Conservative/Independent coalition.
- The proto-Celtic root *φorko-, can mean either pig or salmon, thus giving an alternative of "island(s) of (the) salmon".
- Thomson (2008) suggests that there was an element of Roman "boasting" involved, given that it was known to them that the Orcades lay at the northern extremity of the British Isles. Similarly, Ritchie describes Tacitus' claims that Rome "conquered" Orkney as "a political puff, for there is no evidence of Roman military presence".
- They were certainly politically organised. Ritchie notes the presence of an Orcadian ruler at the court of a Pictish high king at Inverness in 565 AD.
- Sigurd The Mighty's son Gurthorm ruled for a single winter after Sigurd's death and died childless. Rognvald's son Hallad inherited the title but, unable to constrain Danish raids in Orkney, he gave up the earldom and returned to Norway, which according to the Orkneyinga Saga "everyone thought was a huge joke."
- Sigurd the Stout was Thorfinn Skull-splitter's grandson.
- The first recorded bishop was Henry of Lund (also known as "the Fat") who was appointed sometime prior to 1035. The bishopric appears to have been under the authority of the Archbishops of York and of Hamburg-Bremen at different times during the early period and from the mid twelfth century to 1472 was subordinate to the Archbishop of Nidaros (today's Trondheim).
- When the sagas were written down Orkney had been Christian for 200 years or more and this conversion tale has been described as "blatantly unhistorical".
- The Scandinavian peoples, relatively recent converts to Christianity, had a tendency to confer martyrdom and sainthood on leading figures of the day who met violent deaths. Magnus and Haakon Paulsson had been co-rulers of Orkney, and although he had a reputation for piety, there is no suggestion that Magnus died for his Christian faith.
- "St Magnus Cathedral still dominates the Kirkwall skyline – a familiar, and comforting sight, to Kirkwallians around the world."
- It is often believed that the princess's death is associated with the village of St Margaret's Hope on South Ronaldsay but there is no evidence for this other than the coincidence of the name.
- The notion that Henry the first Sinclair Earl, voyaged to North America many years before Christopher Columbus has gained some currency of late. The idea is however dismissed out of hand by many scholars. For example, Thomson (2008) states "Henry's fictitious trip to America continues to received a good deal of unfortunate publicity, but it belongs to fantasy rather than real history".
- The Maeshowe inscriptions date from the 12th century.
- Apparently without the knowledge of the Norwegian Rigsraadet (Council of the Realm), Christian pawned Orkney for 50,000 Rhenish guilders. On 28 May the next year he also pawned Shetland for 8,000 Rhenish guilders. He secured a clause in the contract that gave future kings of Norway the right to redeem the islands for a fixed sum of 210 kg of gold or 2,310 kg of silver. Several attempts were made during the 17th and 18th centuries to redeem the islands, without success.
- For example at the Fall of Warness the tide can run at 4 m/s (7.8 knots).
- Coull (2003) quotes the old saying that an Orcadian is a farmer with a boat, in contrast to a Shetlander, who is a fisherman with a croft.
- " The centre offers developers the opportunity to test prototype devices in unrivalled wave and tidal conditions. Wave and tidal energy converters are connected to the national grid via seabed cables running from open-water test berths into an onshore substation. Testing takes place in a wide range of sea and weather conditions, with comprehensive round-the-clock monitoring."
- There is convincing place-name evidence for the Picts' use of Brythonic or P-Celtic, although no written records survive. No certain knowledge of any pre-Pictish language exists anywhere in Scotland, but there may well have been times of significant overlap. For example, the early Scottish Earls spoke Gaelic when the majority of their subjects spoke Norn, and both of these languages were then replaced by Insular Scots. It is therefore possible that the Pictish aristocracy spoke one language and the common folk an unknown precursor such as Proto-Celtic.
- Only two Q-Celtic words exist in the language of modern Orcadians – "iper" from eabhar, meaning a midden slurry, and "keero" from caora – used to describe a small sheep in the North Isles.
- Lamb (2003) counted 60 words "with correlates in Old Norse only" and 500 Scots expressions in common use in the 1950s.
- The word is of uncertain origin and has also been attested in the Lothians and Fife in the 19th century.
- The expression "ferry louper" has a literal meaning of "ferry jumper" i.e. one who has jumped off a ferry as distinct from a native.
- Waugh, Doreen J. "Orkney Place-names" in Omand (2003) p. 116.
- Anderson, Peter "Is 'The Orkneys' ever right? And other musings on 'Orkney' usage." Orkneyjar. Retrieved 29 July 2009.
- Haskell-Smith (2004) pp. 336–403.
- Wickham-Jones (2007) p. 1 states there are 67 islands.
- National Records of Scotland (15 August 2013). "Appendix 2: Population and households on Scotland's Inhabited Islands" (PDF). Statistical Bulletin: 2011 Census: First Results on Population and Household Estimates for Scotland Release 1C (Part Two) (PDF) (Report). SG/2013/126. Retrieved 14 August 2020.
- Haswell-Smith (2004) pp. 334, 502.
- Lamb, Raymond "Kirkwall" in Omand (2003) p. 184.
- MacMahon, Peter and Walker, Helen (18 May 2007) "Winds of change sweep Scots town halls". Edinburgh. The Scotsman.
- "Political Groups" Shetland Islands Council. Retrieved 23 April 2010.
- Thompson (2008) p. 220.
- Breeze, David J. "The ancient geography of Scotland" in Smith and Banks (2002) pp. 11–13.
- "Early Historical References to Orkney" Orkneyjar.com. Retrieved 27 June 2009.
- Tacitus (c. 98). Agricola. Chapter 10.
ac simul incognitas ad id tempus insulas, quas Orcadas vocant, invenit domuitqueCheck date values in:
- "Proto-Celtic – English Word List" (pdf) (12 June 2002) University of Wales. p. 101.
- Pokorny, Julius (1959) Archived 14 May 2011 at the Wayback Machine Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch. Retrieved 3 July 2009.
- "The Origin of Orkney" Orkneyjar.com. Retrieved 27 June 2009.
- "Strictures on Mr. Laing's Dissertation on the Poems of Ossian". The Scots Magazine. 64: 651. August 1802.
- Pope, Alexander (1866). Ancient History of Orkney, Caithness, & the North. Caithness: Peter Reid. (English translation, with translator's notes, of Torfaeus, Thormodus, 1697CS1 maint: postscript (link)
- Plummer, Carolus (2003). Venerabilis Baedae Historiam Ecclesiasticam [Ecclesiastical History of Bede]. Gorgias Press. ISBN 978-1-59333-028-6.
- Thomson (2008) p. 42.
- "A History of Norway", vol. XIII Translated by Devra Kunin pp. 7–8
- Haswell-Smith (2004) p. 354.
- Buchanan, George (1582) Rerum Scoticarum Historia: The First Book The University of California, Irvine. Revised 8 March 2003. Retrieved 4 October 2007.
- "Pomona or Mainland?" Orkneyjar.com. Retrieved 4 October 2007.
- "Hazelnut shell pushes back date of Orcadian site" (3 November 2007) Stone Pages Archaeo News. Retrieved 6 September 2009.
- "Skara Brae Prehistoric Village" Historic Scotland. Retrieved 3 February 2010.
- Moffat (2005) p. 154.
- "Scotland: 2200–800 BC Bronze Age" Archived 3 December 2010 at the Wayback Machine worldtimelines.org.uk Retrieved 23 August 2008.
- Ritchie, Graham "The Early Peoples" in Omand (2003) pp. 32, 34.
- Wickham-Jones (2007) p. 73.
- Moffat (2005) pp. 154, 158, 161.
- Whittington, Graeme and Edwards, Kevin J. (1994) "Palynology as a predictive tool in archaeology" (pdf) Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland. 124 pp. 55–65.
- "The Ring o' Brodgar – Plumcake Mound". www.orkneyjar.com.
- Wickham-Jones (2007) pp. 74–76.
- Ritchie, Graham "The Early Peoples" in Omand (2003) p. 33.
- Wickham-Jones (2007) pp. 81–84.
- Hogan, C. Michael (2007) Burroughston Broch. The Megalithic Portal. Retrieved 4 October 2009.
- Ritchie, Graham "The Early Peoples" in Omand (2003) pp. 35–37.
- Crawford, Iain "The wheelhouse" in Smith and Banks (2002) pp. 118–22.
- Moffat (2005) pp. 173–75.
- Thomson (2008) pp. 4–5
- Ritchie, Graham "The Early Peoples" in Omand (2003) p. 36
- Thomson (2005) pp. 4–6.
- Laterculus Polemii Silvii
- Orcades/Orkney: the 6th roman province in Britannia
- Ritchie, Anna "The Picts" in Omand (2003) p. 39
- Ritchie, Anna "The Picts" in Omand (2003) pp. 42–46.
- Thomson (2008) pp. 43–50.
- Fraser (2009) p. 345
- Thomson (2008) pp. 24–27.
- Thomson (2008) p. 24.
- Thomson (2008) p. 29.
- Thomson (2008) p. 30 quoting chapter 5.
- Wenham, Sheena "The South Isles" in Omand (2003) p. 211.
- Thomson (2008) pp. 56–58.
- Thomson (2008) p. 69. quoting the Orkneyinga Saga chapter 12.
- Abrams, Lesley "Conversion and the Church in the Hebrides in the Viking Age: "A Very Difficult Thing Indeed" in Ballin Smith et al (2007) pp. 169–89
- Watt, D.E.R., (ed.) (1969) Fasti Ecclesia Scoticanae Medii Aevii ad annum 1638. Scottish Records Society. p. 247.
- "The Diocese of Orkney" Firth's Celtic Scotland. Retrieved 9 September 2009.
- Thomson (2008) pp. 66–67
- Beuermann (2011) pp. 143–44
- Crawford, Barbara E. "Orkney in the Middle Ages" in Omand (2003) pp. 66–68.
- Crawford, Barbara E. "Orkney in the Middle Ages" in Omand (2003) p. 69.
- "St Magnus Cathedral, Kirkwall" Orkneyar. Retrieved 10 September 2009.
- Crawford, Barbara E. "Orkney in the Middle Ages" in Omand (2003) p. 64.
- Crawford, Barbara E. "Orkney in the Middle Ages" in Omand (2003) pp. 72–73.
- Thomson (2008) pp. 134–37.
- Thompson (2008) pp. 146–47.
- Thompson (2008) p. 160.
- Thomson (2008) pp. 168–69.
- "Earl Henry Sinclair: The Zeno Narrative" Orkneyjar. Retrieved 4 October 2009.
- Armit (2006) pp. 173–76.
- Thomson (2008) p. 40.
- Armit (2006) pp. 178–79.
- "Diplom fra Shetland datert 24.november 1509" Archived 5 May 2011 at the Wayback Machine University Library, University in Bergen. (Norwegian). Retrieved 13 September 2009.
- "Norsken som døde" Universitas, Norsken som døde (Norwegian) Retrieved 13 September 2009.
- Thompson (2008) p. 183.
- Crawford, Barbara E. "Orkney in the Middle Ages" in Omand (2003) pp. 78–79.
- Coull, James "Fishing" in Omand (2003) pp. 144–55.
- Thompson (2008) pp. 371–72.
- Haswell-Smith (2004) pp. 364–65.
- Thomson, William P.L. "Agricultural Improvement" in Omand (2003) p. 98.
- Thomson, William P.L. "Agricultural Improvement" in Omand (2003) pp. 93, 99.
- Baynes (1970) p. 182
- Duffy (2003) pp. 464–465, 528, 533–534, 550
- Thomson (2008) pp. 434–36.
- Thomson (2008) pp. 439–43.
- Harrison, Jody (20 December 2014) "Orkney best for quality of life". Glasgow. The Herald. Retrieved 20 December 2014.
- https://news.sky.com/story/orkney-crowned-best-place-to-live-in-the-uk-in-halifax-quality-of-life-survey-11618040 Sky News. Retrieved 28 May 2019
- Wenham, Sheena "Modern Times" in Omand (2003) p. 110.
- "Orkney Islands" Vision of Britain. Retrieved 21 September 2009.
- General Register Office for Scotland (28 November 2003) Scotland's Census 2001 – Occasional Paper No 10: Statistics for Inhabited Islands. Retrieved 26 February 2012.
- "Scotland's 2011 census: Island living on the rise". BBC News. Retrieved 18 August 2013.
- "Get-a-Map" Ordnance Survey. Retrieved 19 September 2009. Archived 29 November 2013 at the Wayback Machine
- Whitakers (1990) pp. 611, 614.
- Tullio Treves; Laura Pineschi (1997). The Law of the Sea: The European Union and Its Member States. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. p. 530. ISBN 978-90-411-0326-0.
- Brown, John Flett "Geology and Landscape" in Omand (2003) p. 19.
- "The Sorcerous Finfolk" Orkneyjar. Retrieved 19 September 2009.
- "Fall of Warness Test Site " Archived 1 December 2008 at the Wayback Machine EMEC. Retrieved 19 September 2009.
- "The Big Tree, Orkney". Forestry Commission. Retrieved 19 September 2009. Archived 27 July 2009 at the Wayback Machine
- Historic Environment Scotland. "School Place, Orkney Islands Council Offices, formerly Kirkwall Grammar School, including boundary walls (LB36809)". Retrieved 18 July 2021.
- Rural settlements at Orkney.gov.uk; retrieved 15 August 2020
- List of Orkney’s rural settlements at orkney.gov.uk; retrieved 15 August 2020
- GENUKI. "Genuki: Orkney Parishes and Islands, Orkney". www.genuki.org.uk. Retrieved 30 January 2021.
- "Harray, Orkney, Scotland Genealogy". FamilySearch Wiki. Retrieved 30 January 2021.
- GENUKI. "Genuki: Evie and Rendall, Orkney". www.genuki.org.uk. Retrieved 30 January 2021.
- "South Ronaldshay & Burray, Orkney, Scotland Genealogy". FamilySearch Wiki. Retrieved 30 January 2021.
- "Saints in Scottish Place-Names – Stronsay, modern parish (Orkney)". saintsplaces.gla.ac.uk. Retrieved 30 January 2021.
- GENUKI. "Genuki: WALLS, Orkney". www.genuki.org.uk. Retrieved 30 January 2021.
- Genetic study reveals 30% of white British DNA has German ancestry. The Guardian.
- "Sheep Breeds: North Ronaldsay". Sheep Breeds. Seven Sisters Sheep Centre. Retrieved 23 April 2009.
- Lawson Handley, L-J; Byrne, K.; Santucci, F.; Townsend, S.; Taylor, M.; Bruford, M. W.; Hewitt, G. M. (2007). "Genetic structure of European sheep breeds". Heredity. 99 (6): 620–631. doi:10.1038/sj.hdy.6801039. PMID 17700634.
- "The Festival of the Horse and the Boys' Ploughing Match". Orknejyar. Retrieved 6 April 2012.
- Marshall, J.E.A., & Hewett, A.J. "Devonian" in Evans, D., Graham C., Armour, A., & Bathurst, P. (eds) (2003) The Millennium Atlas: petroleum geology of the central and northern North Sea.
- Hall, Adrian and Brown, John (September 2005) "Basement Geology". Retrieved 10 November 2008.
- Hall, Adrian and Brown, John (September 2005) "Lower Middle Devonian". Retrieved 10 November 2008.
- Brown, John Flett "Geology and Landscape" in Omand (2003) pp. 4–5.
- Mykura, W. (with contributions by Flinn, D. & May, F.) (1976) British Regional Geology: Orkney and Shetland. Institute of Geological Sciences. Natural Environment Council.
- Land Use Consultants (1998) "Orkney landscape character assessment" Archived 3 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine. Scottish Natural Heritage Review No. 100.
- Odling, N.W.A. (2000) "Point of Ayre" Archived 8 October 2009 at the Wayback Machine. (pdf) "Caledonian Igneous Rocks of Great Britain: Late Silurian and Devonian volcanic rocks of Scotland". Geological Conservation Review 17 : Chapter 9, p. 2731. JNCC. Retrieved 4 October 2009.
- Hall, Adrian and Brown, John (September 2005) "Orkney Landscapes: Permian dykes" Archived 21 January 2012 at the Wayback Machine Retrieved 4 October 2009.
- Brown, John Flett "Geology and Landscape" in Omand (2003) p. 10.
- Chalmers, Jim "Agriculture in Orkney Today" in Omand (2003) p. 129.
- "Regional mapped climate averages" Met Office. Retrieved 19 September 2009.
- "The Climate of Orkney" Orkneyjar. Retrieved 19 September 2009.
- "About the Orkney Islands". Orkneyjar. Retrieved 19 September 2009.
- "Climatology: Sunrise/Sunset for Orkney, United Kingdom " The Weather Channel. Retrieved 12 May 2012.
- John Vetterlein (21 December 2006). "Sky Notes: Aurora Borealis Gallery". Retrieved 9 September 2009.
- "Kirkwall 1981–2010 averages". UKMO. Retrieved 13 September 2012.
- "Kirkwall Extremes". KNMI. Archived from the original on 22 February 2013. Retrieved 23 May 2015.
- "Climate Normals 1981–2010". Met Office. Retrieved 23 February 2021.
- "Alistair Carmichael: MP for Orkney and Shetland" alistaircarmichael.org.uk. Retrieved 8 September 2009.
- "Candidates and Constituency Assessments". alba.org.uk – "The almanac of Scottish elections and politics". Retrieved 9 February 2010.
- "The Untouchable Orkney & Shetland Isles " (1 October 2009) www.snptacticalvoting.com Retrieved 9 February 2010. Archived 29 July 2013 at the Wayback Machine
- "Liam McArthur MSP" Scottish Parliament. Retrieved 8 September 2009.
- "Jim Wallace" Scottish Parliament. Retrieved 8 September 2009.
- "Social Work Inspection Agency: Performance Inspection Orkney Islands Council 2006. Chapter 2: Context." The Scottish Government. Retrieved 8 September 2009.
- "Orkney Islands Council : Election 2017 Results". BBC News. Retrieved 8 May 2017.
- "Candidates and Constituency Assessments: Orkney (Highland Region)" alba.org.uk. Retrieved 11 January 2008 Archived 18 January 2012 at the Wayback Machine
- Jeavans, Christine (19 September 2014). "BBC News – In maps: How close was the Scottish referendum vote?". BBC News. Archived from the original on 27 February 2015. Retrieved 8 February 2015.
- Severin Carrell. "Scottish independence: no campaigners buoyed by first referendum results". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 8 February 2015. Retrieved 8 February 2015.
- Chalmers, Jim "Agriculture in Orkney Today" in Omand (2003) p. 127, 133 quoting the Scottish Executive Agricultural Census of 2001 and stating that 80% of the land area is farmed if rough grazing is included.
- "Orkney Economic Review No. 23." (2008) Kirkwall. Orkney Islands Council.
- "Orkney Business Directory". Orkney.com. Retrieved 12 May 2012.
- "Orkney Economic Update" (1999) (pdf) HIE. Retrieved 20 September 2009.
- Study of Orkney economy sheds light on island prosperity
- Covid-19 – islands fund now open
- ORKNEY ISLANDS VISITOR SURVEY RESULTS
- THE 20 MOST BEAUTIFUL ISLANDS TO VISIT IN SCOTLAND
- "Do not disturb: Oakhurst Cottage, Orkney", The Scotsman, 3 August 2015. Retrieved 3 August 2015.
- Covid in Scotland: NorthLink ferry passengers down 71% on last year 7 December 2020
- Why The Tourism Sector Needs To Change 25 April 2020
- Llewelyn, Robert. "Orkney Island of the future". Fully Charged. Robert Llewelyn. Retrieved 20 May 2015.
- "European Marine Energy Centre". Retrieved 3 February 2007.
- "First Minister Opens New Tidal Energy Facility at EMEC" (Press release). Highlands and Islands Enterprise. 28 September 2007. Retrieved 1 October 2007.
- Registered Power Zone Annual Report for period 1 April 2006 to 31 March 2007. (2007) Scottish Hydro Electric Power Distribution and Southern Electric Power Distribution.
- Facilitate generation connections on Orkney by automatic distribution network management (pdf) DTI. Retrieved 18 October 2007. Archived 27 March 2009 at the Wayback Machine
- "About". BIG HIT.
- Grant, Alistair (4 April 2019). "Pioneering Orkney energy project offers glimpse of fossil fuel-free future". HeraldScotland. The Herald (Glasgow).
- "Press release: Energy system of the future to be demonstrated in Orkney : EMEC: European Marine Energy Centre". European Marine Energy Centre. 4 April 2019.
- Is Orkney 'in the fast lane' on electric vehicles? 12 August 2019
- How hydrogen is transforming these tiny Scottish islands
- How Orkney leads the way for sustainable energy
- Is Orkney the hydrogen capital of the world? 25 November 2019
- This small island chain is leading the way on hydrogen power'
- EGEB: Scotland trials world’s first hydrogen ferry
- "How hydrogen is transforming these tiny Scottish islands". BBC News. 27 March 2019. Retrieved 7 February 2021.
- "Green hydrogen set to decarbonise airport". Hydrogen East. 20 December 2020. Retrieved 7 February 2021.
- Council, SIC moves ahead in developing hydrogen as an alternative fuel 2 September 2020
- Scotland Invests in Offshore Wind and Tidal Energy for Green Hydrogen 20 December 2020
- "Getting Here" Archived 2 May 2009 at the Wayback Machine Visit Orkney. Retrieved 13 September 2009.
- "Air Travel" Orkney Islands Council. Retrieved 13 September 2009.
- "Getting Here" Westray and Papa Westray Craft and Tourist Associations. Retrieved 7 January 2010.
- "Welcome to Orkney Ferries". Orkney Ferries Ltd. Retrieved 16 May 2012.
- "Radio Orkney". BBC. Retrieved 19 September 2009.
- "Superstation Orkney" thesuperstation.co.uk. Retrieved 19 September 2009
- Superstation Orkney ends community radio broadcasting, RadioToday, 16 November 2014
- "Welcome to the Caithness F.M. website" Caithness FM. Retrieved 19 September 2009.
- "Orkney Library & Archive". www.orkneylibrary.org.uk.
- "About our libraries". www.orkneylibrary.org.uk.
- "Mobile Library". www.orkneylibrary.org.uk.
- Clarkson (2008) pp. 30–34.
- Lamb, Gregor "The Orkney Tongue" in Omand (2003) pp. 248–49.
- Forsyth, Katherine (1995). "The ogham-inscribed spindle-whorl from Buckquoy: evidence for the Irish language in pre-Viking Orkney?". Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland. 125: 677–96. Retrieved 12 May 2012.
- Lamb, Gregor "The Orkney Tongue" in Omand (2003) p. 250.
- Lamb, Gregor (1995) Testimony of the Orkneyingar: Place Names of Orkney. Byrgisey. ISBN 0-9513443-4-X
- "The Orcadian Dialect" Orkneyjar. Retrieved 4 October 2008.
- Lamb, Gregor "The Orkney Tongue" in Omand (2003) pp. 250–53.
- Clackson, Stephen (25 November 2004) The Orcadian. Kirkwall.
- Grant, W. and Murison, D.D. (1931–1976) Scottish National Dictionary. Scottish National Dictionary Association. ISBN 0-08-034518-2.
- "The Trows". Orkneyjar. Retrieved 19 September 2009.
- Muir, Tom "Customs and Traditions" in Omand (2003) p. 270.
- Drever, David "Orkney Literature" in Omand (2003) p. 257.
- "The Orcadians – The people of Orkney" Orkneyjar. Retrieved 19 September 2009.
- "'We are Orcadian first, and Scottish second' many people would tell me during the course of my fieldwork." McClanahan, Angela (2004) The Heart of Neolithic Orkney in its Contemporary Contexts: A case study in heritage management and community values Historic Scotland/University of Manchester, p. 25 (§3.47) Retrieved 8 January 2010.
- "Ethnicity, Identity, Language and Religion | Scotland Census 2011".
- "Where is Orkney?" Orkneyjar. Retrieved 19 September 2009.
- Orkneyjar FAQ Orkneyjar. Retrieved 19 September 2009.
- "Orkney tartan" tartans.scotland.net Retrieved 19 September 2009.
- "Sanday Tartan" www.clackson.com. Retrieved 2 June 2007. Archived 11 September 2012 at the Wayback Machine
- "Clackson tartan" tartans.scotland.net. Retrieved 19 September 2009.
- "Kirkwall City Pipe Band" kirkwallcity.com. Retrieved 19 September 2009.
- "Stromness RBL Pipe Band" stromnesspipeband.co.uk. Retrieved 19 September 2009.
- "Dictionary of the Scots Language :: DOST :: Lowp V".
- Vedder, David (1832) Orcadian Sketches. Edinburgh. William Tait.
- "Northern Isles" Archived 5 December 2008 at the Wayback Machine. SNH. Retrieved 27 September 2009.
- Benvie (2004) pp. 126–38.
- Haynes, S., Jaarola M., & Searle, J.B. (2003). "Phylogeography of the common vole (Microtus arvalis) with particular emphasis on the colonization of the Orkney archipelago". Molecular Ecology. 12 (4): 951–956. doi:10.1046/j.1365-294X.2003.01795.x. PMID 12753214.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link) Retrieved 27 September 2009.
- "Boggy hillside reborn as Orkney forest reserve". (27 May 2011) BBC. Retrieved 27 May 2011.
- "North Ronaldsay". Sheep Breeds. Seven Sisters Sheep Centre. Retrieved 23 April 2009.
- Trichecodon huxlei (Mammalia: Odobenidae) in the Pleistocene of southeastern United States., Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology at Harvard College 122:129–142.
- "Salvelinus inframundus: Regan, 1909" – FishBase. Retrieved 5 January 2013.
- "The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Retrieved 24 October 2018.
- "Orkney vole is from Belgium".
- "Orkney Fox in Neolithic era". Archived from the original on 5 February 2017. Retrieved 10 April 2016.
- "Orkney Stoats".
- Orkney Native Wildlife Project
- The Orkney Native Wildlife Project
- Orkney stoat eradication project awarded £6m
- Orkney Native Wildlife Project
- Stoats of Orkney weasel out of cull thanks to saboteurs
- Row over stoat cull after mass deaths of animals
- Police Investigate Stoat Trap Damage 11 January 2021
- "Special Protection Areas SPA". Orkney Islands Council. Retrieved 25 November 2019.
- "Special Areas of Conservation SAC". Orkney Islands Council. Retrieved 25 November 2019.
- "The special qualities of the National Scenic Areas" (PDF). Scottish Natural Heritage. December 2010. p. 17. Retrieved 25 November 2019.
- "North-west Orkney Marine Protected Area Summary" (PDF). Joint Nature Conservation Committee. Retrieved 25 November 2019.
- "North-west Orkney MPA(NC)". NatureScot. Retrieved 12 October 2020.
- Henderson, Michelle (9 July 2021). "Royal Navy divers take to the streets of Orkney after their awarded Freedom of Orkney". The Press and Journal. Retrieved 13 July 2021.
- "Freedom of Orkney honour presented to Northern Diving Group". The Orcadian. 9 July 2021. Retrieved 13 July 2021.
- Armit, Ian (2006) Scotland's Hidden History. Stroud. Tempus. ISBN 0-7524-3764-X
- Beuermann, Ian "Jarla Sǫgur Orkneyja. Status and power of the earls of Orkney according to their sagas" in Steinsland, Gro; Sigurðsson, Jón Viðar; Rekda, Jan Erik and Beuermann, Ian (eds) (2011) Ideology and power in the Viking and Middle Ages: Scandinavia, Iceland, Ireland, Orkney and the Faeroes . The Northern World: North Europe and the Baltic c. 400–1700 A.D. Peoples, Economics and Cultures. 52. Leiden. Brill. ISBN 978-90-04-20506-2
- Baynes, John (1970) The Jacobite Rising of 1715. London. Cassell. ISBN 0-304-93565-4
- Benvie, Neil (2004) Scotland's Wildlife. London. Aurum Press. ISBN 1-85410-978-2
- Ballin Smith, B. and Banks, I. (eds) (2002) In the Shadow of the Brochs, the Iron Age in Scotland. Stroud. Tempus. ISBN 0-7524-2517-X
- Ballin Smith, Beverley; Taylor, Simon; and Williams, Gareth (eds) (2007) West Over Sea: Studies in Scandinavian Sea-borne Expansion and Settlement Before 1300. Brill. ISBN 90-04-15893-6
- Clarkson, Tim (2008) The Picts: A History. Stroud. The History Press. ISBN 978-0-7524-4392-8
- Duffy, Christopher (2003) The 45: Bonnie Prince Charlie and the Untold Story of the Jacobite Rising. London. Weidenfeld & Nicolson. ISBN 0-304-35525-9
- Fraser, James E. (2009) From Caledonia to Pictland: Scotland to 795. Edinburgh University Press. ISBN 978-0-7486-1232-1
- Haswell-Smith, Hamish (2004). The Scottish Islands. Edinburgh: Canongate. ISBN 978-1-84195-454-7.
- Moffat, Alistair (2005) Before Scotland: The Story of Scotland Before History. London. Thames & Hudson. ISBN 978-0500051337
- Omand, Donald (ed.) (2003) The Orkney Book. Edinburgh. Birlinn. ISBN 1-84158-254-9
- Thomson, William P.L. (2008) The New History of Orkney. Edinburgh. Birlinn. ISBN 978-1-84158-696-0
- Whitaker's Almanack 1991 (1990). London. J. Whitaker & Sons. ISBN 0-85021-205-7
- Wickham-Jones, Caroline (2007) Orkney: A Historical Guide. Edinburgh. Birlinn. ISBN 1-84158-596-3
- incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Orkney Islands". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. This article
- Batey, C.E. et al (eds.) (1995) The Viking Age in Caithness, Orkney and the North Atlantic. Edinburgh University Press. ISBN 978-0-7486-0632-0
- Fresson, Captain E.E. Air Road to the Isles. (2008) Kea Publishing. ISBN 978-0-9518958-9-4
- Hutton, Guthrie (2009) Old Orkney. Catrine: Stenlake Publishing ISBN 9781840334678
- Livesey, Margot, The Flight of Gemma Hardy (a novel). HarperCollins, 2012. ISBN 978-0-06-206422-6
- Lo Bao, Phil and Hutchison, Iain (2002) BEAline to the Islands. Kea Publishing. ISBN 978-0-9518958-4-9
- Nicol, Christopher (2012) Eric Linklater's Private Angelo and The Dark of Summer Glasgow: ASLS ISBN 978-1906841119
- Rendall, Jocelyn (2009) Steering the Stone Ships: The Story of Orkney Kirks and People Saint Andrew Press, Edinburgh.
- Tait, Charles (2012) The Orkney Guide Book, Charles Tait, St. Ola, Orkney. ISBN 978-0-9517859-8-0
- Warner, Guy (2005) Orkney by Air. Kea Publishing. ISBN 978-0-9518958-7-0
- Dance, Gaia (2013) "The Sea Before Breakfast." Amazon. ISBN 978-1-3015054-8-7