An orthography is a set of conventions for writing a language, including norms of spelling, hyphenation, capitalization, word breaks, emphasis, and punctuation.

Most transnational languages in the modern period have a system of writing, and for most such languages a standard orthography has been developed, often based on a standard variety of the language, and thus exhibiting less dialect variation than the spoken language.[1][2] Sometimes there may be variation in a language's orthography, such as that between American and British spelling in the case of English orthography. In some languages (such as French) orthography is regulated by language academies. For most languages (including English), there are no such authorities and a sense of 'correct' orthography evolves through encounters with print in schooling, workplace, and informal contexts. Some organizations, however, such as newspapers of record or academic journals, opt for greater orthographic homogeneity by enforcing a particular style guide.