Outline of Australia

This outline of Australia is an overview of and topical guide to various aspects of the country of Australia.

Location of Australia

Australia refers to both the continent of Australia and to the Commonwealth of Australia, the sovereign country.

The continent of Australia, the world's smallest continent, is in the Southern Hemisphere and borders both the Indian Ocean and the Pacific Ocean.

The Commonwealth of Australia comprises the mainland of the Australian continent, the major island of Tasmania, other nearby islands, and various external territories.[1]

Neighbouring countries are Indonesia, East Timor, and Papua New Guinea to the north, the Solomon Islands, Vanuatu, and New Caledonia to the north-east, and New Zealand to the south-east.

The Australian mainland has been inhabited for at least 50,000 years by Aboriginal Australians.[2] After sporadic visits by fishermen from the north and then European discovery by Dutch explorers in 1606,[3] the eastern half of Australia was later claimed by the British in 1770 and initially settled through penal transportation as part of the colony of New South Wales, commencing on 26 January 1788. As the population grew and new areas were explored, another five largely self-governing Crown colonies were established during the 19th century.

General reference

An enlargeable basic map of Australia


An enlargeable topographic map of Australia
Climatic zones in Australia, based on Köppen classification.
Extreme points of mainland Australia

Geography of Australia


An enlargeable satellite image of Australia

Environment of Australia

Geographic features


Multi-state regions
Administrative divisions
Australian external territories

States and territories of Australia

Mainland territories
External territories

Local government in Australia


Demographics of Australia

State/territory Land area (km2)Rank Population (2012)[4]Rank Population density (/km2)Rank  % of population in capitalRank
 New South Wales 800,6425th 7,348,9001st9.183rd63.5%5th
 Victoria 227,4166th 5,679,6002nd24.972nd74.8%4th
 Queensland 1,730,6482nd 4,610,9003rd2.665th47.5%7th
 Western Australia 2,529,8751st 2,472,7004th0.987th76.7%3rd
 South Australia 983,4824th 1,662,2005th1.696th76.8%2nd
 Tasmania 68,4017th 512,4006th7.494th42.3%8th
 Australian Capital Territory 2,3588th 379,6007th160.981st98.7%1st
 Northern Territory 1,349,1293rd 236,9008th0.188th55.6%6th

Government and politics

Political parties in government in 1945.
  Other Coalition
  No government

Federal government

Government of Australia

Branches of the government

Separation of powers in Australia

Executive branch
Legislative branch
Judicial branch

Judiciary of Australia


Australian Defence Force

Foreign relations

International organisation membership

The Commonwealth of Australia is a member of the:[1]

Law and order

Law of Australia

State and territory governments

Local government

Local government in Australia


Map showing the creation of the colonies/states and mainland territories.

History of states


Culture of Australia

Economy and infrastructure

Economy of Australia

State economies


States education

Religion and belief systems in Australia


Sport in Australia

See also



  1. "Australia". The World Factbook. United States Central Intelligence Agency. 2 July 2009. Retrieved 23 July 2009.
  2. Both Australian Aborigines and Europeans Rooted in Africa – 50,000 years ago
  3. MacKnight, CC (1976).The Voyage to Marege: Macassan Trepangers in Northern Australia. Melbourne University Press
  4. "Australian Demographic Statistics September 2009". Retrieved 3 May 2010.