Parliament of Canada

The Parliament of Canada (French: Parlement du Canada) is the federal legislature of Canada, seated at Parliament Hill in Ottawa, and is composed of three parts: the King, the Senate, and the House of Commons.[2] By constitutional convention, the House of Commons is dominant, with the Senate rarely opposing its will. The Senate reviews legislation from a less partisan standpoint and may initiate certain bills. The monarch or his representative, normally the governor general, provides royal assent to make bills into law.

Parliament of Canada

Parlement du Canada
44th Parliament
Coat of arms or logo
House of Commons
SovereignMonarch of Canada
Founded1 July 1867 (1867-07-01)
Preceded byInitially assumed some jurisdiction from:

Later added some jurisdiction from:

Charles III
since 8 September 2022
Mary Simon
since 26 July 2021
Raymonde Gagné, (Non-affiliated)
since 12 May 2023
Anthony Rota, (Liberal)
since 5 December 2019
Justin Trudeau, (Liberal)
since 4 November 2015
Pierre Poilievre, (Conservative)
since 10 September 2022
338 Members of Parliament
105 senators
Current Structure of the Canadian Senate
Senate political groups
  Conservative (15)
  Vacant (16)
Current Structure of the Canadian House of Commons
House of Commons political groups
His Majesty's Government

Confidence and supply

His Majesty's Loyal Opposition

Parties with official status

Parties without official status

Appointment by the governor general on advice of the prime minister
House of Commons last election
20 September 2021
Meeting place
House of Commons of Canada sits in the West Block in Ottawa until 2029
House of Commons of CanadaWest BlockParliament Hill
Ottawa, Ontario
Senate of CanadaSenate of Canada Building
2 Rideau Street
Ottawa, Ontario

The governor general, on behalf of the monarch, summons and appoints the 105 senators on the advice of the prime minister, while each of the 338 members of the House of Commons – called members of Parliament (MPs) – represents an electoral district, commonly referred to as a riding, and are elected by Canadian voters residing in the riding. The governor general also summons and calls together the House of Commons, and may prorogue or dissolve Parliament, in order to either end a parliamentary session or call a general election. The governor general also delivers the Throne Speech at the opening of each new Parliament (the monarch occasionally has done so, instead of the governor general, when visiting Canada).

The current Parliament, summoned by Governor General Mary Simon in November 2021, is the 44th Parliament since Confederation in 1867. The official languages of the Parliament are English and French.[3]

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