Participle

In linguistics, a participle (PTCP) is a nonfinite verb form that has some of the characteristics and functions of both verbs and adjectives.[1] More narrowly, participle has been defined as "a word derived from a verb and used as an adjective, as in a laughing face".[2]

“Participle” is a traditional grammatical term from Greek and Latin that is widely used for corresponding verb forms in European languages and analagous forms in Sanskrit and Arabic grammar.

Cross-linguistically, participles may have a range of functions apart from adjectival modification. In European and Indian languages the past participle is used to form the passive voice. In English, participles are also associated with periphrastic verb forms (continuous and perfect) and are widely used in adverbial clauses. As a result, ‘participles’ have come to be associated with a broad variety of syntactic constructions.

Outside the familiar languages of Europe, ‘participle’ has been applied to forms that are alternatively regarded as converbs (see Sireniki Eskimo below), gerunds, gerundives, transgressives, and nominalised verbs in complement clauses.