Passports of the European Union


The European Union itself does not issue ordinary passports, but ordinary passport booklets issued by its 27 member states share a common format.[1] This common format features a coloured cover (for which burgundy is recommended but not compulsory: all countries except Croatia follow this recommendation) emblazoned—in the official language(s) of the issuing country (and sometimes its translation into English and French)—with the title "European Union", followed by the name(s) of the member state, the heraldic "Arms" of the State concerned, the word "PASSPORT", together with the biometric passport symbol at the bottom centre of the front cover.[2]

EU member states' ordinary passport booklets (France shown here) have common design elements and all, except Croatia, have burgundy coloured covers.

Some EU member states also issue non-EU passports to certain people who have a nationality which does not render them citizens of the European Union (e.g., Danish nationals residing in the Faroe Islands).

In addition, the European Commission issues European Union Laissez-Passers to the members and certain civil servants of its institutions.[3]

Use


With a valid passport, EU citizens are entitled to exercise the right of free movement (meaning they do not need a visa and do not need a residence permit for settling) in the European Economic Area (European Union, Iceland, Liechtenstein, and Norway), Switzerland and, until 31 December 2020 in the United Kingdom.[4]

The passports of EU citizens are not stamped when entering and leaving the Schengen Area.[5][6]

When going through border controls to enter an aforementioned country, citizens possessing valid biometric passports are sometimes able to use automated gates instead of immigration counters. For example, when entering the United Kingdom, at major airports, holders of EU biometric passports who are twelve years of age or older can use ePassport gates, whilst all other EU citizens (such as those using a national identity card or a non-biometric passport) and some non-EEA citizens must use an immigration counter. Anyone travelling with children under the age of 12 must also use an immigration counter.[7]

As an alternative to holding a passport, EU citizens can also use a valid national identity card to exercise their right of free movement within the EEA, Switzerland and the United Kingdom.[8] Strictly speaking, it is not necessary for an EU citizen to possess a valid passport or national identity card to enter the EEA or Switzerland. In theory, if an EU citizen outside of both the EEA and Switzerland can prove their nationality by any other means (e.g. by presenting an expired passport or national identity card, or a citizenship certificate), they must be permitted to enter the EEA or Switzerland. An EU citizen who is unable to demonstrate their nationality satisfactorily must nonetheless be given 'every reasonable opportunity' to obtain the necessary documents or to have them delivered within a reasonable period of time.[9][10][11][12]

Common design features


While considerable progress has been made in harmonising some features, the data page can be found at the front or at the back of an EU passport booklet and there are significant design differences throughout to indicate which member state is the issuer.[note 1]

Since the 1980s, European Union member states have started to harmonise aspects of the designs of their ordinary passport booklets.[1] Most passports issued by EU member states have the common recommended layout; burgundy in colour with the words "European Union" accompanied by the name of the issuing member state printed on the cover.[13] Non-standard types of passports, such as passport cards (Ireland is still the only EU country to issue a passport in card format), diplomatic, service, and emergency passports have not yet been harmonised.

The newest EU member state Croatia refused to fully comply with the EU common recommended layout even though the Croatian passport has been changed in design due to the recent accession into the EU. From 3 August 2015, the new Croatian passport retained its dark blue passport cover and is the odd one out among the 27 European Union member states' passports.[14]

The common design features are a result of several non-binding resolutions:

  • Resolution of the Representatives of the Governments of the Member States of the European Communities, meeting within the Council of 23 June 1981
  • Supplementary Resolution to the Resolution adopted on 23 June 1981 concerning the adoption of a passport of uniform pattern, of the Representatives of the Governments of the Member States of the European Communities, meeting within the council on 30 June 1982
  • Resolution of the Representatives of the Governments of the Member States, meeting within the council, of 14 July 1986 supplementary to the resolutions of 23 June 1981 and 30 June 1982 concerning the introduction of a passport of uniform pattern
  • Resolution of the representatives of the Governments of the Member States, meeting within the Council of 10 July 1995 supplementary to the resolutions of 23 June 1981, 30 June 1982 and 14 July 1986 concerning the introduction of a passport of uniform pattern  
  • Resolution of the representatives of the Governments of the Member States, meeting within the Council of 8 June 2004 supplementary to the resolutions of 23 June 1981, 30 June 1982, 14 July 1986 and 10 July 1995 concerning the introduction of a passport of uniform pattern

The security characteristics in EU passports are regulated through both non-binding resolutions and binding regulations:

  • Resolution of the representatives of the governments of the Member States, meeting within the Council of 17 October 2000 supplementing the resolutions of 23 June 1981, 30 June 1982, 14 July 1986 and 10 July 1995 as regards the security characteristics of passports and other travel documents
  • Council Regulation (EC) No 2252/2004 of 13 December 2004 on standards for security features and biometrics in passports and travel documents issued by Member States
  • Regulation (EC) No 444/2009 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 28 May 2009 amending Council Regulation (EC) No 2252/2004 on standards for security features and biometrics in passports and travel documents issued by Member States

Only Irish passports are not obliged by EU law to contain fingerprint information in their chip. With the exception of passports issued by Denmark and Ireland, all EU citizens applying for a new ordinary passport or passport renewal by 28 August 2006 (for facial images) and 28 June 2009 (for fingerprints) should have been biometrically enrolled. This is a consequence of Regulation (EC) 2252/2004 in combination with two follow-up decisions by the European Commission.[15]

Overall format

Cover

Information on the cover, in this order, in the language(s) of the issuing state:

  • The words "EUROPEAN UNION" (before 1997: "EUROPEAN COMMUNITY")
  • Name of the issuing state (similar typeface as "EUROPEAN UNION")
  • Emblem of the state
  • The word "PASSPORT"
  • The Biometric Passport symbol

First page

Information on the first page, in one or more of the languages of the European Union:

  • The words "EUROPEAN UNION"
  • Name of the issuing state (similar typeface to that of "European Union")
  • The word "PASSPORT"
  • Serial number (may also be repeated on the other pages)

Identification page

Information on the (possibly laminated) identification page, in the languages of the issuing state plus English and French, accompanied by numbers (which very between member states) that refer to an index that lists the meaning of these fields in all official EU languages:

1. Surname 2. Forename(s)
3. Nationality 4. Date of birth
5. Personal ID number (optional)      6. Sex
7. Place of birth 8. Date of issue
9. Authority 10. Date of expiry
11. Signature of holder

On the top of the identification page there is the code "P" for passport, the code (ISO 3166-1 alpha-3) for the issuing country, and the passport number. On the left side there is the main photo. On other places there might optionally be the passport holder's height and security features, including a smaller, see-through photo.

For the place of birth in an Irish passport, only the county of birth (not the town/city) is shown for people born on the island of Ireland; for Irish citizens born outside Ireland, only the three-letter international code of the country of birth is provided.

Machine-readable zone

Like all biometric passports, the newer EU passports contain a Machine-readable zone, which contains the name, nationality and most other information from the identification page. It is designed in a way so that computers can fairly easily read the information, although still human readable, since it contains only letters (A–Z), digits and "<" as space character, but no bar code or similar.

Personal name spelling differences

Names containing non-English letters are usually spelled in the correct way in the visual (non-machine-readable) zone of the passport, but are mapped into A-Z according to the standards of the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) in the machine-readable zone.

The following mapping is specified for EU languages: å → AA; ä/æ → AE; ö/ø/œ → OE, ü → UE (German) or UXX (Spanish) and ß → SS. Letters with accents are otherwise replaced by simple letters (ç → C, ê → E, etc.). For Greek and Bulgarian there are mapping tables based on transliteration into English. They use both their alphabet and the Latin alphabet in the visual zone.

For example, the German names Müller becomes MUELLER, Groß becomes GROSS, and Gößmann becomes GOESSMANN. The ICAO mapping is mostly used for computer-generated and internationally used documents such as air tickets, but sometimes (like in US visas) also simple letters are used (MULLER, GOSSMANN).

The three possible spelling variants of the same name (e.g. Müller / Mueller / Muller) in different documents sometimes lead to confusion, and the use of two different spellings within the same document (like in the passports of German-speaking countries) may give people who are unfamiliar with the foreign orthography the impression that the document is a forgery. In some countries, the original or alternative spelling of the names may be mentioned on the page facing the identification page or elsewhere in the passport.

It is recommended[by whom?] to use the spelling used in the machine-readable passport zone for visas, airline tickets, etc., and to refer to that zone if being questioned. The same thing applies if the name is too long to fit in the airline's ticket system, otherwise problems can arise. (The machine-readable has room for 39 letters for the name while the visual zone can contain as many as will fit)[citation needed]

Following page

Optional information on the following page:

11. Residence 12. Height
13. Colour of eyes     14. Extension of the passport
15. Name at birth (if now using married name or have legally changed names)

Remaining pages

  • The following page is reserved for:
    • Details concerning the spouse of the holder of the passport (where a family passport is issued)
    • Details concerning children accompanying the holder (name, first name, date of birth, sex)
    • Photographs of the faces of spouse and children
  • The following page is reserved for use by the issuing authorities
  • The following page carries the index that translates the field numbers into the official languages of the EU
  • The remaining pages are reserved for visas and entry and exit stamps
  • The inside back cover is reserved for additional information or recommendations by the issuing state in its own official language(s)

Overview of EU Member States' Passports


Current Passports of the European Union

Member state Passport cover Biodata page Cost Validity Issuing authority Latest version
Austria
  • €75.90 (aged 12 or over)[19]
  • €30.00 (aged 0–11)[20]
  • Free (aged 0–2, first issue)
  • 10 years (aged 12 or over)
  • 5 years (aged 2–11)
  • 2 years (aged 0–2)
Municipal registration offices

If abroad, Austrian embassies and consulates

5 September 2014[21]
Belgium
  • €65 (adults; 32 pages; in Belgium)
  • €35 (children; 32 pages; in Belgium)
  • €240 (adults; 64 pages; in Belgium)
  • €210 (children; 64 pages; in Belgium)
  • €75 (adults; 32 pages; abroad)
  • €35 (children; 32 pages; abroad)
  • €240 (adults; 64 pages; abroad)
  • €210 (children; 64 pages; abroad)[22]
  • 7 years (majors aged 18 or over)
  • 5 years (minors aged under 18)
  • Communes (in Belgium)
  • Belgian embassies and consulates (abroad)
1 May 2014[23]
Bulgaria
  • BGN 40 (adults aged 14–58)
  • BGN 20 (under 14 and 58–70)
  • BGN 10 (over 70)[24]
  • 5 years

Ministry of Interior Affairs

29 March 2010
Croatia

  • HRK 355 (320 + 35 administrative fee)[25]
  • 10 years (adults aged 21 or over)
  • 5 years (adults aged under 21)
  • Ministry of the Interior Affairs of the Republic of Croatia
3 August 2015
Cyprus
  • €70 (adults)
  • €45 (minors)[26]
  • 10 years (adults)
  • 5 years (minors)[27]
  • Civil Registry and Migration Department, Ministry of the Interior;
    Embassies and High Commissions of the Republic of Cyprus
13 December 2010
Czech Republic

  • CZK 600 (adults aged 15 or over; issued within 30 days)
  • CZK 100 (children under 15)
  • CZK 1200 (adults over 15, at embassies/consulates abroad, 120 days)
  • CZK 400 (children under 15, abroad)[28]
  • 10 years (adults aged 15 or over)
  • 5 years (children under 15)
  • any of the 205 town halls with augmented authority
  • abroad: consulates of the Czech Republic (except honorary consulates)
1 September 2006
Denmark

Link to image
  • DKK 627 (age 18-64)
  • DKK 377 (age 65+)
  • DKK 142 (age 12-17)
  • DKK 115 (age 0-11)[29]
  • 10 years (adults)
  • 5 years (children under 18)
  • Kommune (Municipality)
1 January 2012
Estonia

Link to image
  • €40 (ages 15 and up)
  • €20 (children under 15)
  • €60 (ages 15 and up when applying abroad)
  • €20 (children under 15 when applying abroad)[30]
  • 10 years (ages 15 and up)
  • 5 years (children under 15)
  • Police and Border Guard Board (PPA)
1 June 2014[31]
Finland

Link to image
  • €51 (€45 online)
  • €25 for veterans of Finnish wars (€22 online)
  • €86 temporary passport[32]
  • 5 years
1 January 2017
 Finland, Åland Islands[33] Link to image
  • €51 (€45 online)
  • 5 years
1 January 2017
France

Link to image
  • 10 years (adults)
  • 5 years (children under 18)
  • Préfecture offices (but forms can be addressed to any city hall)
  • French consulates (abroad)
12 April 2006
Germany

  • €60 (aged 24 or over; 32 pages)
  • €37.50 (applicants under 24; 32 pages)
  • €82 (aged 24 or over; 48 pages)
  • €59.50 (applicants under 24; 48 pages)[36]
  • 10 years (aged 24 or over)
  • 6 years (applicants under 24 or second passport)
Municipal registration offices

If abroad, German embassies and consulates, including some honorary consulates

1 March 2017
Greece

  • €84.40 (adults)
  • €73.60 (children)[37]
  • 5 years (applicants aged 15 or over)
  • 2 years (children under 15)
National Passport Centre ("Διεύθυνση Διαβατηρίων/Αρχηγείο Ελληνικής Αστυνομίας") 28 August 2006
Hungary

  • HUF 14000 (10 years)
  • HUF 7500 (5 years)[38]
  • 5 years
  • 10 years

Registration Office (Nyilvántartó Hivatal)

1 March 2012
Ireland
  • €80 (adults; 32 pages)
  • €30 (minors)
  • €110 (adults; 66 pages)[39]
  • 10 years (adults)
  • 5 years (children)
Consular and Passport Division of the Department of Foreign Affairs 3 October 2013
Italy
  • 10 years (adults)
  • 5 years (minors aged 3–18)
  • 3 years (children aged 0–3)[41]
Minister of Foreign Affairs through 20 May 2010
Latvia
  • €28.46 (applicants over 20)
  • €14.23 (pensioners, disabled and aged under 20)[43]
  • 10 years (adults aged 60 or over)
  • 5 years (applicants aged 5–59)
  • 2 years (children under 5)
  • Office of Citizenship and Migration Affairs (PMLP)
29 January 2015[44]
Lithuania

Link to image
  • €43 (adults)
  • €21.50 (children)[45]
  • 10 years (adults aged 16 or over)
  • 5 years (children aged 5–15)
  • 2 years (children under 5)
27 January 2011
Luxembourg Link to image
  • €50 (5-year)
  • €30 (2-year)[46]
  • 5 years (applicants aged 4 or over)
  • 2 years (applicants under 4)
Bureau des passeports 16 February 2015[23]
Malta Link to image
  • €70-80 (applicants aged 16 and over; higher fee applies April to August)
  • €40 (applicants aged 10 to 15)
  • €16 (applicants under 4)[47]
  • 10 years (applicants aged 16 and over)
  • 5 years (applicants aged 10 to 15)
  • 2 years (applicants under 4)
Passport & Civil Registration Directorate 29 September 2008
Netherlands
  • €65.30 (maximum rate; adults; 34-page; individual municipalities determine the rate; 66-page business passport available for the same price on request.)
  • €52 (maximum rate; minors; 34-page; individual municipalities determine the rate.)
  • €115.77 (minors; 34 pages; abroad.)
  • €129.07 (adults; 34 pages; abroad.)
  • US$94.38 (minors; maximum rate, all ages 34-page Aruba, Curaçao, Saint-Martin, Caribbean Netherlands.)
  • US$109.24 (adults; maximum rate, all ages 34-page Aruba, Curaçao, Saint-Martin, Caribbean Netherlands. 66-page business passport available for the same price on request.)[48]
  • 10 years (applicants aged 18 and over)[49]
  • 5 years (applicants aged under 18)
  • Gemeente (Municipality)
  • Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Abroad)
23 December 2017
Poland
  • PLN 140 (for applicants aged between 13 and 70)
  • PLN 30 (for applicants aged under 13 and for 1-year temporary passport)
  • €110 (abroad, for applicants aged between 13 and 70)
  • €70 (abroad, for applicants aged under 13)
  • €40 (abroad, for 1-year temporary passport)
  • €15 (abroad, for 1-year temporary passport when simultaneously applying for regular passport)
  • free for applicants aged 70 and over
  • certain classes of applicants qualify for a 50% discount of a relevant fee[50]
  • 10 years (applicants aged 13 and over)
  • 5 years (applicants aged under 13)
  • 1 year (temporary passport)
5 November 2018
Portugal
  • 5 years (applicants aged 5 or over)
  • 2 years (children under 5)
10 July 2017
Romania Link to image
  • RON 258 (5-year passports for applicants aged 12–18, 10-year passports for applicants over 18)
  • RON 234 (3-year passports, applicants aged under 12)
  • RON 96 (1-year temporary passports)[52][53]
  • 10 years (applicants aged 18 or over)
  • 5 years (applicants aged 12–18)
  • 3 years (applicants under 12)
  • 1-year (temporary passport)
Ministry of Internal Affairs (General Directorate for Passports) 12 January 2019
Slovakia Link to image
  • €33 (applicants older than 16)
  • €13 (applicants aged 6–16)
  • €8 (applicants aged 6 or younger)
  • 50% discount exists for seriously ill applicants; 10% discount exists for applicants whose fingerprints cannot be taken and who obtain a passport valid for 1 year.[54]
  • 10 years (adults aged 16 or over)
  • 5 years (children aged 5–15)
  • 2 years (children under 5)
  • Ministry of Interior
26 November 2014
Slovenia
  • €46.10 (10 years; age 18+)
  • €39.30 (5 years; age 3-18)
  • €35.20 (3 years; age under 3)
  • €34.80 (1 year; when in 5 years two or more passports were lost or stolen or fingerprints cannot be taken)[55]
  • Ministry of the Interior
12 December 2016
Spain
  • 10 years (applicants over 30)
  • 5 years (applicants between 5 and 30)
  • 2 years (applicants under 5)
2 January 2015
Sweden
  • SEK 350[57]
  • SEK 1400 at embassies[58]
  • SEK 1600 for temporary passport[58]
  • 5 years
  • Swedish Police Authority (in Sweden)
  • Swedish embassies and consulates (abroad)
2 January 2012

Former Passports of the European Union

Following the UK's withdrawal from the European Union in January 2020, the UK and Gibraltar ceased to issue EU passports. During the transition period, UK and Gibraltar passport are de facto EU passports, conferring their holders the rights of EU citizens. The transition period is currently scheduled to end on 31 December 2020, unless otherwise extended. Prior to the introduction of the current UK passport in March 2020, the British passports conformed to the EU standard design. Between March 2019 and March 2020, passports were issued without the 'EUROPEAN UNION' header. Passports issued in Gibraltar are expected to change to the new UK design in 2020.[59]

Former Member state or territory Date of EU

withdrawal

Passport cover Biodata page Validity Issuing authority Latest version
United Kingdom 31 January 2020

Link to image

  • 10 years (aged 16 or over)
  • 5 years (under 16)
HM Passport Office March 2020
Link to image
Link to image
Gibraltar Link to image October 2015 to January 2020[clarification needed] Gibraltar Civil Status and Registration Office


Passport rankings


Visa requirements for European Union citizens

As of 7 April 2020, passport rankings (Germany with most in the EU, and Japan in the world with 191 destinations) by the number of countries and territories their holders could visit without a visa or by obtaining visa on arrival in April 2020 were as follows:[60]

Country Number of destinations
Austria 187
Belgium 185
Bulgaria 171
Croatia 170
Cyprus 174
Czech Republic 184
Denmark 187
Estonia 179
Finland 188
France 186
Germany 189
Greece 184
Hungary 182
Ireland 186
Italy 188
Latvia 180
Lithuania 181
Luxembourg 188
Malta 184
Netherlands 186
Poland 181
Portugal 186
Romania 172
Slovakia 181
Slovenia 180
Spain 188
Sweden 186

For comparison, those for some other countries, including EEA and former EU (UK):

Country Number of destinations
Japan 191
Norway 185
Switzerland 185
United Kingdom 185
United States 185
Iceland 180
Liechtenstein 178

Multiple and simultaneous passports


Same country

Some EU countries, such as Germany, France, Ireland and Malta, allow their citizens to have several passports at once to circumvent certain travel restrictions.[citation needed] This can be useful if wanting to travel while a passport remains at a consulate while a visa application is processed, or wanting to apply for further visas while already in a foreign country. It can also be needed to circumvent the fact that visitors whose passports show evidence of a visit to Israel are not allowed to enter Iran, Iraq, Lebanon, Libya, Saudi Arabia, Sudan, Syria and Yemen (It is, however, possible to get the Israeli entry and exit stamp on a separate piece of paper).

Multiple citizenship

Each EU member state can make its own citizenship laws, so some countries allow dual or multiple citizenship without any restrictions (e.g. France, Ireland, Italy and Sweden), some allow multiple citizenships but ignore existence of other citizenships within their borders (e.g. Poland), some regulate/restrict it (e.g. Austria, Germany, the Netherlands, Spain), and others allow it only in exceptional cases (e.g. Lithuania) or only for citizens by descent (e.g. Croatia, Estonia, Slovenia).

Emergency passports


Decision 96/409/CSFP of the Representatives of the Governments of the Member States meeting within the Council of 25 June 1996 on the establishment of an emergency travel document[61] decided that there would be a standard emergency travel document (ETD).

ETDs are issued to European Union citizens for a single journey back to the EU country of which they are a national, to their country of permanent residence or, in exceptional cases, to another destination (inside or outside the Union). The decision does not apply to expired national passports; it is specifically restricted to cases where valid and unexpired passports have been lost, stolen, destroyed, or are temporarily unavailable (i.e. left somewhere else by accident).

Embassies and consulates of EU countries different to the applicant may issue emergency travel documents if

  1. the applicant is an EU national whose passport or travel document has been lost, stolen, destroyed, or is temporarily unavailable;
  2. the applicant is in a country in which the EU country of which s/he is a national has no accessible diplomatic or consular representation able to issue a travel document or in which the EU country in question is not otherwise represented;
  3. clearance from the authorities of the applicant's country of origin has been obtained.

Right to consular protection in non-EU countries


As a consequence of citizenship of the European Union, when in a non-EU country, EU citizens whose country maintains no diplomatic mission there have the right to consular protection and assistance from a diplomatic mission of any other EU country present in the non-EU country.

Other EEA passports and Swiss passports


Like passports issued by EU member states, passports of other EEA states – Iceland, Liechtenstein, and Norway – as well as of Switzerland, can also be used to exercise the right of free movement within the European Economic Area and Switzerland.[4]

As part of the Schengen agreement, passports and travel documents issued by member states shall comply with minimum security standards, and passports must incorporate a storage medium (a chip) that contains the holder's facial image and fingerprints. This obligation does not apply to identity cards or to temporary passports and travel documents with a validity of one year or less. Iceland, Norway, Switzerland, and Liechtenstein are bound by the rules (while the United Kingdom and Ireland are not), as Regulation (EC) No 2252/2004 constitutes a development of provisions of the Schengen acquis within the meaning of the Agreement concluded by the Council of the European Union and Iceland and Norway, the agreement concluded by the European Union, the European Community and the Swiss Confederation, and the Protocol signed between the European Union, the European Community, the Swiss Confederation and the Principality of Liechtenstein on the accession of the Principality of Liechtenstein to the Agreement between the European Union, the European Community and the Swiss Confederation, concerning the association of the four States with the implementation, application and development of the Schengen acquis .[2][62]

See also


Notes


  1. All EU issuing nations make a concerted effort to ensure that their passports feature nationally distinctive designs. Finnish passports make a flip-book of a moose walking.

References


  1. "EUR-Lex - 41981X0919 - EN". Official Journal C 241 , 19/09/1981 P. 0001 - 0007; Spanish special edition: Chapter 01 Volume 3 P. 0087 ; Portuguese special edition Chapter 01 Volume 3 P. 0087 ;.CS1 maint: extra punctuation (link)
  2. "L_2004385EN.01000101.xml". eur-lex.europa.eu.
  3. European Council regulations covering the issue of EULF documents, dated 17 December 2013, accessed 11 October 2016.
  4. Decision of the EEA Joint Committee No 158/2007 of 7 December 2007 amending Annex V (Free movement of workers) and Annex VIII (Right of establishment) to the EEA Agreement, EUR-Lex. Retrieved 24 November 2015.
  5. Regulation (EU) 2016/399 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 9 March 2016 on a Union Code on the rules governing the movement of persons across borders (Schengen Borders Code), Article 11 (OJ L 77, 23 March 2016, p. 1–52)
  6. Practical Handbook for Border Guards, Part II, Section I, Point 6.2 (C (2019) 7131)
  7. "Entering the UK : At border countrol". UK Border Force. Retrieved 13 April 2020.
  8. "Entry clearance basics (entry clearance guidance) - GOV.UK".
  9. Article 5(4) of the Citizens' Rights Directive 2004/38/EC (L 158, pp. 77–123)
  10. Practical Handbook for Border Guards, Part II, section I, point 2.9 (C (2019) 7131)
  11. Judgment of the European Court of Justice of 17 February 2005, Case C 215/03, Salah Oulane vs. Minister voor Vreemdelingenzaken en Integratie
  12. "Processing British and EEA Passengers without a valid Passport or Travel Document" (PDF).[permanent dead link]
  13. Anonymous (6 December 2016). "Document security - Migration and Home Affairs - European Commission".
  14. "Croatian Passport the 'Blue' Sheep of the 'Burgundy' EU Family". CroatiaWeek. 15 February 2016. Retrieved 15 August 2017.
  15. "Council Regulation (EC) No 2252/2004 of 13 December 2004". Official Journal of the European Union. 29 December 2004. Retrieved 24 June 2019.
  16. "Document: FIN-AO-06001". Retrieved 24 November 2018.
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  18. "Passaporti: sul sito tutte le novità | Polizia di Stato". www.poliziadistato.it. Archived from the original on 15 July 2019. Retrieved 15 July 2019.
  19. "HELP.gv.at: Reisepass – Neuausstellung". help.gv.at. Retrieved 2 August 2017.
  20. "Reisepass für Minderjährige unter 18 Jahren". www.oesterreich.gv.at.
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  22. "Home". www.consilium.europa.eu.
  23. "Такси за издаване на лична карта и паспорт на български граждани". www.mvr.bg.
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  28. "Ansøg om eller forny dansk pas". www.borger.dk.
  29. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 22 January 2018. Retrieved 21 January 2018.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  30. "Estonian citizen's passport". Archived from the original on 16 February 2015. Retrieved 15 February 2015.
  31. "Service prices 1st January 2020". Poliisi.fi. 1 January 2020.
  32. "Council of the European Union - PRADO - FIN-AO-05002 - <Outside front cover>".
  33. "Polisen.ax - Pass". www.polisen.ax.
  34. "Passeport | service-public.fr". www.service-public.fr.
  35. "§ 15 PassV - Einzelnorm". www.gesetze-im-internet.de.
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