A bog or bogland is a wetland that accumulates peat, a deposit of dead plant material—often mosses, and in a majority of cases, sphagnum moss.[1] It is one of the four main types of wetlands. Other names for bogs include mire, mosses, quagmire, and muskeg; alkaline mires are called fens.[clarification needed] A baygall is another type of bog found in the forest of the Gulf Coast states in the United States.[2][3] They are often covered in heath or heather shrubs rooted in the sphagnum moss and peat. The gradual accumulation of decayed plant material in a bog functions as a carbon sink.[4][5]

A bog in Lauhanvuori National Park, Isojoki, Finland.
Precipitation accumulates in many bogs, forming bog pools, such as Koitjärve bog in Estonia.
A raised bog in Ķemeri National Park, Jūrmala, Latvia, formed approximately 10,000 years ago in the postglacial period and now a tourist attraction.

Bogs occur where the water at the ground surface is acidic and low in nutrients.[clarification needed] In contrast to fens, they derive most of their water from precipitation rather than mineral-rich ground or surface water.[6] Water flowing out of bogs has a characteristic brown colour, which comes from dissolved peat tannins. In general, the low fertility and cool climate result in relatively slow plant growth, but decay is even slower due to low oxygen levels in saturated bog soils. Hence, peat accumulates. Large areas of the landscape can be covered many meters deep in peat.[1][7]

Bogs have distinctive assemblages of animal, fungal and plant species, and are of high importance for biodiversity, particularly in landscapes that are otherwise settled and farmed.