South Yemen

South Yemen, officially the People's Democratic Republic of Yemen (Arabic: جمهورية اليمن الديمقراطية الشعبية, romanized: Jumhūriyat al-Yaman ad-Dīmuqrāṭīyah ash-Sha'bīyah), also referred to as Democratic Yemen or Yemen (Aden), was a socialist country that existed from 1967 to 1990 as a state in the Middle East in the southern and eastern provinces of the present-day Republic of Yemen, including the island of Socotra.

People's Democratic Republic of Yemen
جمهورية اليمن الديمقراطية الشعبية (Arabic)
Jumhūrīyat al-Yaman ad-Dīmuqrāṭīyah ash-Sha'bīyah
Anthem: الجمهورية المتحدة (Arabic)
al-Jumhūrīyah al-Muttaḥidâh
"United Republic"
(Original lyrics)

The People's Democratic Republic of Yemen in 1989
and largest city
Common languages
GovernmentUnitary Marxist–Leninist one-party socialist republic[1]
General Secretary 
Abdul Fattah Ismail
Ali Nasir Muhammad
Ali Salim al-Beidh
 1967–1969 (first)
Qahtan al-Shaabi
 1969–1978 (second)
Salim Rubai Ali
 1986–1990 (last)
Haidar Abu Bakr al-Attas
Prime Minister 
Faysal al-Shaabi
Muhammad Ali Haitham
Ali Nasir Muhammad
Haidar al-Attas
Yasin Said Numan
LegislatureSupreme People's Council
Historical eraCold War
 Independence declared
30 November 1967
14 December 1967
 Constitution adopted
31 October 1978
22 May 1990
CurrencySouth Yemeni dinar
Calling code969
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Federation of South Arabia
Protectorate of South Arabia
Today part ofYemen

South Yemen's origins can be traced to 1874 with the creation of the British Colony of Aden and the Aden Protectorate, which consisted of two-thirds of the present-day Yemen. However, Aden became a province within British India in 1937. After the collapse of Aden Protectorate, a state of emergency was declared in 1963, when the National Liberation Front (NLF) and the Front for the Liberation of Occupied South Yemen (FLOSY) rebelled against British rule.

The Federation of South Arabia and the Protectorate of South Arabia merged to become the People's Republic of Southern Yemen on 30 November 1967 and later changed its name to the People's Democratic Republic of Yemen. It became a Marxist–Leninist one-party state in 1969 and was supported by Cuba, East Germany and the Soviet Union. It was the only communist state to be established in the Arab world.[2] Despite its efforts to bring stability into the region, it was involved in a brief civil war in 1986. With the collapse of communism, South Yemen was unified with the Yemen Arab Republic, commonly known as "North Yemen," on 22 May 1990 to form the present-day Republic of Yemen. After three years, however, a political crisis arose between the South's YSP and the North's GPC and Islah parties after the parliamentary elections in 1993. South Yemen declared its secession from the North Yemen in 1994; the new unrecognised secessionist state, the Democratic Republic of Yemen, ended with its dissolution and North Yemen occupying South Yemen after the 1994 civil war. Another attempt to restore South Yemen, as only a country, not as a socialist state, with the Southern Transitional Council as its new government, began in 2017 and had continued ever since.