Periodizations of capitalism

A periodization of capitalism seeks to distinguish stages of development that help understanding of features of capitalism through time. The best-known periodizations that have been proposed distinguish these stages as:

  1. Early / monopoly / state monopoly capitalism (Sweezy)
  2. Free trade / monopoly / finance capitalism (Hilferding)
  3. Early capitalism (primitive accumulation) / colonialism / imperialism (Hobson, Lenin, Bukharin)
  4. Extensive stage / intensive stage / late capitalism (Aglietta)

The Marxist periodization of capitalism into the stages:[1] agricultural capitalism, merchant capitalism, industrial capitalism and state capitalism.

Another periodization includes merchant capitalism, industrial and finance capitalism, and global capitalism.[2][3][4]