Persecution of Hazara people

The Hazaras have long been the subjects of persecution by both states[which?] and non-state militant groups. The Hazaras are mostly from Afghanistan, primarily from the central regions of Afghanistan, known as Hazarajat. Significant communities of Hazara people also live in Quetta, Pakistan, and in the city of Mashad, Iran, as part of the Hazara and Afghan diasporas.

During the reign of Emir Abdur Rahman Khan (1880–1901), hundreds of thousands of Hazaras were killed, expelled and enslaved.[1] Syed Askar Mousavi, a contemporary Hazara writer, claimed that half the population of Hazarajat were killed or fled into to neighbouring regions of Balochistan in British India[2] and Khorasan in Iran.[1] This led to Pashtuns and other groups occupying parts of Hazarajat. The Hazara people have also been the victims of massacres committed by the Taliban and al-Qaeda.

Conditions improved for the Hazaras in Afghanistan during the post-Taliban era. However, Hazaras who lived in the southern provinces of Afghanistan continued to face unofficial discrimination at the hands of Pashtuns.[3] Moreover, Hazaras in Afghanistan are still subjected to attacks by the Taliban, and a 2018 attack was committed in Malestan District in the Hazara's homeland in central Afghanistan.[4] Throughout the 2000s and early 2010s, Hazaras in Balochistan, Pakistan, faced attacks from militant groups like Lashkar-e-Jhangvi. In the mid-2010s, the security situation improved for Hazaras in Balochistan. However, the improved protection that resulted from the placement of walls and checkpoints around their city has also made their lives difficult.[5]

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