The Philippines (/ˈfɪlɪpnz/ (listen); Filipino: Pilipinas),[15] officially the Republic of the Philippines (Filipino: Republika ng Pilipinas),[lower-alpha 4] is an archipelagic country in Southeast Asia. It is situated in the western Pacific Ocean, and consists of about 7,640 islands, that are broadly categorized under three main geographical divisions from north to south: Luzon, Visayas, and Mindanao. The Philippines is bounded by the West Philippine Sea to the west, the Philippine Sea to the east, and the Celebes Sea to the southwest, and shares maritime borders with Taiwan to the north, Japan to the northeast, Palau to the east and southeast, Indonesia to the south, Malaysia to the southwest, Vietnam to the west, and China to the northwest. The Philippines covers an area of 300,000 km2 (120,000 sq mi) and, as of 2020, had a population of around 109 million people, making it the world's thirteenth-most populous country. The Philippines has diverse ethnicities and cultures throughout its islands. Manila is the national capital, while the largest city is Quezon City, both lying within the urban area of Metro Manila.

Republic of the Philippines
Republika ng Pilipinas  (Filipino)
Maka-Diyos, Maka-tao, Makakalikasan at Makabansa[1]
"For God, People, Nature and Country"
Anthem: Lupang Hinirang
"Chosen Land"
Great Seal:
CapitalManila (de jure)
14°35′N 120°58′E
Metro Manila[lower-alpha 1] (de facto)
Largest cityQuezon City
14°38′N 121°02′E
Official languagesFilipino  English
Recognized regional languages
National sign language
Filipino Sign Language
Other recognized languages[lower-alpha 2]
Ethnic groups
(masculine and neutral)

(colloquial masculine and neutral)
(colloquial feminine)

(used for certain common nouns)
GovernmentUnitary presidential republic
Rodrigo Duterte
Leni Robredo
Tito Sotto
Lord Allan Velasco
Alexander Gesmundo
House of Representatives
from the United States
June 12, 1898
December 10, 1898
July 4, 1946
300,000 km2 (120,000 sq mi) (72nd)
 Water (%)
0.61[7] (inland waters)
298,170 km2 (115,120 sq mi)
 2021 estimate
 2020 census
109,035,343[9] (13th)
336/km2 (870.2/sq mi) (47th)
GDP (PPP)2021 estimate
$1.0 trillion[10] (29th)
 Per capita
$9,061[10] (115th)
GDP (nominal)2021 estimate
$402.638 billion[10] (32nd)
 Per capita
$3,646[10] (118th)
Gini (2018) 42.3[11]
medium · 44th
HDI (2019) 0.718[12]
high · 107th
CurrencyPhilippine peso () (PHP)
Time zoneUTC+08:00 (PST)
Date formatmm/dd/yyyy
Driving sideright[lower-alpha 3]
Calling code+63
ISO 3166 codePH

Negritos, some of the archipelago's earliest inhabitants, were followed by successive waves of Austronesian peoples. Adoption of animism, Hinduism and Islam established island-kingdoms called Kedatuans, Rajahnates and Sultanates. The arrival of Ferdinand Magellan, a Portuguese explorer leading a fleet for Spain, marked the beginning of Spanish colonization. In 1543, Spanish explorer Ruy López de Villalobos named the archipelago Las Islas Filipinas in honor of Philip II of Spain. Spanish settlement through Mexico, beginning in 1565, led to the Philippines becoming part of the Spanish Empire for more than 300 years. During this time, Catholicism became the dominant religion, and Manila became the western hub of trans-Pacific trade. In 1896, the Philippine Revolution began, which then became entwined with the 1898 Spanish–American War. Spain ceded the territory to the United States, while Filipino revolutionaries declared the First Philippine Republic. The ensuing Philippine–American War ended with the United States establishing control over the territory, which they maintained until the Japanese invasion of the islands during World War II. Following liberation, the Philippines became independent in 1946. Since then, the unitary sovereign state has often had a tumultuous experience with democracy, which included the overthrow of a dictatorship by the People Power Revolution.

It is considered to be an emerging market and a newly industrialized country, which has an economy transitioning from being based on agriculture to being based more on services and manufacturing. The Philippines is a founding member of the United Nations, World Trade Organization, Association of Southeast Asian Nations, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum, and the East Asia Summit. The Philippines' position as an island country on the Pacific Ring of Fire and close to the equator makes the country prone to earthquakes and typhoons. The country has a variety of natural resources and a globally significant level of biodiversity.

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