Phnom Penh

Phnom Penh (/pəˌnɒm ˈpɛn, ˌpnɒm -/;[6][7][8] Khmer: ភ្នំពេញ, Phnum Pénh [pʰnumˈpɨɲ]; lit. "Penh's Hill") is the capital and most populous city of Cambodia. It has been the national capital since the French protectorate of Cambodia, and has grown to become the nation's economic, industrial, and cultural centre.

Phnom Penh
Réachthéani Phnum Pénh
From top, left to right: Royal Throne Hall, Silver Pagoda, a street in Koh Pich, Sisowath Quay, Riverside Park, National Museum, Wat Phnom, Royal Stupas, Hotel Le Royal, Supreme Court Building
Pearl of Asia (pre-1960s)
The Charming City
Phnom Penh
Location within Cambodia
Phnom Penh
Location within Asia
Coordinates: 11°34′10″N 104°55′16″E
Country Cambodia
Settled5th century[2]
Capital status1434–1497
Capital re-established1865
Named forWat Phnom and Lady Penh
  TypeMunicipal council
  GovernorKhuong Sreng (CPP)
  National Assembly
12 / 125
  Total679 km2 (262 sq mi)
Area rank24th
11.89 m (39.01 ft)
 (2019 census)[4]
  Total 2,281,951
  Density3,361/km2 (8,700/sq mi)
  Density rank1st
Demonym(s)Phnom Penher
(French: Phnom Penhois(e))
Time zoneUTC+07:00 (ICT)
Area code(s)+855 (023)
HDI (2017)0.712[5]
high · 1st

Phnom Penh was founded in 1434 to succeed Angkor Thom as the capital of the Khmer nation but was abandoned several times before being reestablished in 1865 by King Norodom. The city formerly functioned as a processing center, with textiles, pharmaceuticals, machine manufacturing, and rice milling. Its chief assets, however, were cultural. Institutions of higher learning included the Royal University of Phnom Penh (Established in 1960 as Royal Khmer University), with schools of engineering, fine arts, technology, and agricultural sciences, the latter at Chamkar Daung, a suburb. Also located in Phnom Penh were the Royal University of Agronomic Sciences and the Agricultural School of Prek Leap.[9]

Once known as the "Pearl of Asia", it was considered one of the loveliest French-built cities in Indochina[10] in the 1920s. Phnom Penh, along with Siem Reap and Sihanoukville, are significant global and domestic tourist destinations for Cambodia. Founded in 1372, the city is noted for its historical architecture and attractions. It became the national capital in 1434 following the fall of Angkor, and remained so until 1497.[11] It regained its capital status during the French colonial era in 1865. There are a number of surviving colonial-era buildings scattered along the grand boulevards.

On the banks of the Tonlé Sap, Mekong, and Bassac Rivers, Phnom Penh is home to more than 2 million people, approximately 14% of the Cambodian population.[4] The Phnom Penh metropolitan area includes 5 districts of Kandal Province.[12]