|Systematic IUPAC name|
3D model (JSmol)
|Molar mass||94.9714 g mol−1|
|Conjugate acid||Monohydrogen phosphate|
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
|(what is ?)|
The phosphate or orthophosphate ion [PO
is derived from phosphoric acid by the removal of three protons H+
. Removal of one or two protons gives the dihydrogen phosphate ion [H
and the hydrogen phosphate ion [HPO
ion, respectively. These names are also used for salts of those anions, such as ammonium dihydrogen phosphate and trisodium phosphate.
In organic chemistry, phosphate or orthophosphate is an organophosphate, an ester of orthophosphoric acid of the form PO
4RR′R″ where one or more hydrogen atoms are replaced by organic groups. An example is trimethyl phosphate, (CH
4. The term also refers to the trivalent functional group OP(O-)
3 in such esters.
Orthophosphates are especially important among the various phosphates because of their key roles in biochemistry, biogeochemistry, and ecology, and their economic importance for agriculture and industry. The addition and removal of phosphate groups (phosphorylation and dephosphorylation) are key steps in cell metabolism.