Pieter Bruegel the Elder

Pieter Bruegel (also Brueghel or Breughel) the Elder (/ˈbrɔɪɡəl/,[2][3][4] also US: /ˈbrɡəl/;[5][6] Dutch: [ˈpitər ˈbrøːɣəl] (listen); c.1525–1530 – 9 September 1569) was the most significant artist of Dutch and Flemish Renaissance painting, a painter and printmaker, known for his landscapes and peasant scenes (so-called genre painting); he was a pioneer in making both types of subject the focus in large paintings.

Pieter Bruegel the Elder
The Painter and The Connoisseur, c.1565, possibly Bruegel's self-portrait[1]
Born
Pieter Bruegel

c.1525–1530
Breda or Breugel (modern-day Netherlands)
Died(1569-09-09)9 September 1569 (aged 39 to 44)
Known forPainting, printmaking
Notable work
The Hunters in the Snow, The Peasant Wedding, The Tower of Babel
MovementDutch and Flemish Renaissance

He was a formative influence on Dutch Golden Age painting and later painting in general in his innovative choices of subject matter, as one of the first generation of artists to grow up when religious subjects had ceased to be the natural subject matter of painting. He also painted no portraits, the other mainstay of Netherlandish art. After his training and travels to Italy, he returned in 1555 to settle in Antwerp, where he worked mainly as a prolific designer of prints for the leading publisher of the day. Only towards the end of the decade did he switch to make painting his main medium, and all his famous paintings come from the following period of little more than a decade before his early death, when he was probably in his early forties, and at the height of his powers.

As well as looking forwards, his art reinvigorates medieval subjects such as marginal drolleries of ordinary life in illuminated manuscripts, and the calendar scenes of agricultural labours set in landscape backgrounds, and puts these on a much larger scale than before, and in the expensive medium of oil painting. He does the same with the fantastic and anarchic world developed in Renaissance prints and book illustrations.[7]

He is sometimes referred to as "Peasant Bruegel", to distinguish him from the many later painters in his family, including his son Pieter Brueghel the Younger (1564–1638). From 1559, he dropped the 'h' from his name and signed his paintings as Bruegel; his relatives continued to use "Brueghel" or "Breughel".