A pigment is a colored material that is completely or nearly insoluble in water.[1][2] In contrast, dyes are typically soluble, at least at some stage in their use. Generally dyes are often organic compounds whereas pigments are often inorganic compounds. Pigments of prehistoric and historic value include ochre, charcoal, and lapis lazuli.

Pigments for sale at a market stall in Goa, India.

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