Plastid

The plastid (Greek: πλαστός; plastós: formed, molded – plural plastids) is a membrane-bound organelle[1] found in the cells of plants, algae, and some other eukaryotic organisms. They are considered to be intracellular endosymbiotic Cyanobacteria. Examples include chloroplasts (used for photosynthesis), chromoplasts (used for pigment synthesis and storage), and leucoplasts (non-pigmented plastids that can sometimes differentiate).

Plastid
Scientific classification
Domain: Bacteria
Phylum: Cyanobacteria
Clade: Plastids
Plant cells with visible chloroplasts.

The event which led to permanent endosymbiosis in the Archaeplastida clade (of land plants, red algae, and green algae) probably occurred with a cyanobiont (a symbiotic cyanobacteria) related to the genus Gloeomargarita, around 1.5 billion years ago.[2][3] A later primary endosymbiosis event occurred in photosynthetic Paulinella amoeboids about 90–140 million years ago. This plastid belongs to the "PS-clade" (of the cyanobacteria genera Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus).[4][5] Secondary and tertiary endosymbiosis has also occurred, in a wide variety of organisms; additionally, some organisms sequester ingested plastids in a process that is known as kleptoplasty.

Plastids were discovered and named by Ernst Haeckel, but A. F. W. Schimper was the first to provide a clear definition. They often contain pigments used in photosynthesis, and the types of pigments in a plastid determine the cell's color. They are also the site of manufacture and storage of important chemical compounds used by the cells of autotrophic eukaryotes. They possess a double-stranded DNA molecule that is circular, like that of the circular chromosome of prokaryotic cells.