Platinum

Platinum is a chemical element with the symbol Pt and atomic number 78. It is a dense, malleable, ductile, highly unreactive, precious, silverish-white transition metal. Its name is derived from the Spanish term platino, meaning "little silver".[3][4]

Platinum, 78Pt
Platinum
Pronunciation/ˈplætɪnəm/ (PLAT-in-əm)
Appearancesilvery white
Standard atomic weight Ar, std(Pt)195.084(9)[1]
Platinum in the periodic table
Hydrogen Helium
Lithium Beryllium Boron Carbon Nitrogen Oxygen Fluorine Neon
Sodium Magnesium Aluminium Silicon Phosphorus Sulfur Chlorine Argon
Potassium Calcium Scandium Titanium Vanadium Chromium Manganese Iron Cobalt Nickel Copper Zinc Gallium Germanium Arsenic Selenium Bromine Krypton
Rubidium Strontium Yttrium Zirconium Niobium Molybdenum Technetium Ruthenium Rhodium Palladium Silver Cadmium Indium Tin Antimony Tellurium Iodine Xenon
Caesium Barium Lanthanum Cerium Praseodymium Neodymium Promethium Samarium Europium Gadolinium Terbium Dysprosium Holmium Erbium Thulium Ytterbium Lutetium Hafnium Tantalum Tungsten Rhenium Osmium Iridium Platinum Gold Mercury (element) Thallium Lead Bismuth Polonium Astatine Radon
Francium Radium Actinium Thorium Protactinium Uranium Neptunium Plutonium Americium Curium Berkelium Californium Einsteinium Fermium Mendelevium Nobelium Lawrencium Rutherfordium Dubnium Seaborgium Bohrium Hassium Meitnerium Darmstadtium Roentgenium Copernicium Nihonium Flerovium Moscovium Livermorium Tennessine Oganesson
Pd

Pt

Ds
iridiumplatinumgold
Atomic number (Z)78
Groupgroup 10
Periodperiod 6
Block  d-block
Electron configuration[Xe] 4f14 5d9 6s1
Electrons per shell2, 8, 18, 32, 17, 1
Physical properties
Phase at STPsolid
Melting point2041.4 K (1768.3 °C, 3214.9 °F)
Boiling point4098 K (3825 °C, 6917 °F)
Density (near r.t.)21.45 g/cm3
when liquid (at m.p.)19.77 g/cm3
Heat of fusion22.17 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization510 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity25.86 J/(mol·K)
Vapor pressure
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 2330 (2550) 2815 3143 3556 4094
Atomic properties
Oxidation states−3, −2, −1, 0, +1, +2, +3, +4, +5, +6 (a mildly basic oxide)
ElectronegativityPauling scale: 2.28
Ionization energies
  • 1st: 870 kJ/mol
  • 2nd: 1791 kJ/mol
Atomic radiusempirical: 139 pm
Covalent radius136±5 pm
Van der Waals radius175 pm
Color lines in a spectral range
Spectral lines of platinum
Other properties
Natural occurrenceprimordial
Crystal structure face-centered cubic (fcc)
Speed of sound thin rod2800 m/s (at r.t.)
Thermal expansion8.8 µm/(m⋅K) (at 25 °C)
Thermal conductivity71.6 W/(m⋅K)
Electrical resistivity105 nΩ⋅m (at 20 °C)
Magnetic orderingparamagnetic
Molar magnetic susceptibility+201.9 × 10−6 cm3/mol (290 K)[2]
Tensile strength125240 MPa
Young's modulus168 GPa
Shear modulus61 GPa
Bulk modulus230 GPa
Poisson ratio0.38
Mohs hardness3.5
Vickers hardness400–550 MPa
Brinell hardness300–500 MPa
CAS Number7440-06-4
History
DiscoveryAntonio de Ulloa (1735)
Main isotopes of platinum
Iso­tope Abun­dance Half-life (t1/2) Decay mode Pro­duct
190Pt 0.012% 6.5×1011 y α 186Os
192Pt 0.782% stable
193Pt syn 50 y ε 193Ir
194Pt 32.864% stable
195Pt 33.775% stable
196Pt 25.211% stable
198Pt 7.356% stable
 Category: Platinum
| references

Platinum is a member of the platinum group of elements and group 10 of the periodic table of elements. It has six naturally occurring isotopes. It is one of the rarer elements in Earth's crust, with an average abundance of approximately 5 μg/kg. It occurs in some nickel and copper ores along with some native deposits, mostly in South Africa, which accounts for 80% of the world production. Because of its scarcity in Earth's crust, only a few hundred tonnes are produced annually, and given its important uses, it is highly valuable and is a major precious metal commodity.[5]

Platinum is one of the least reactive metals. It has remarkable resistance to corrosion, even at high temperatures, and is therefore considered a noble metal. Consequently, platinum is often found chemically uncombined as native platinum. Because it occurs naturally in the alluvial sands of various rivers, it was first used by pre-Columbian South American natives to produce artifacts. It was referenced in European writings as early as 16th century, but it was not until Antonio de Ulloa published a report on a new metal of Colombian origin in 1748 that it began to be investigated by scientists.

Platinum is used in catalytic converters, laboratory equipment, electrical contacts and electrodes, platinum resistance thermometers, dentistry equipment, and jewelry. Being a heavy metal, it leads to health problems upon exposure to its salts; but due to its corrosion resistance, metallic platinum has not been linked to adverse health effects.[6] Compounds containing platinum, such as cisplatin, oxaliplatin and carboplatin, are applied in chemotherapy against certain types of cancer.[7]

In early 2021, the value of platinum ranged from US$1,055 per troy ounce to US$1,320 per troy ounce.[8]