Political aspects of Islam
Political aspects of Islam are derived from the Quran, hadith literature, and sunnah (the sayings and living habits of the Islamic prophet Muhammad), history of Islam, and elements of political movements outside Islam. Traditional political concepts in Islam include leadership by elected or selected successors to Muhammad known as Caliphs (Imamate for Shia); the importance of following Islamic law or Sharia; the duty of rulers to seek Shura or consultation from their subjects; and the importance of rebuking unjust rulers.
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A significant change in the Muslim world was the defeat and dissolution of the Ottoman Empire (1908–1922). In the 19th and 20th century, common Islamic political themes has been resistance to Western imperialism and enforcement of Sharia law through democratic or militant struggle. Events such as the defeat of Arab armies in the Six-Day War, the collapse of the Soviet Union, the end of the Cold War and the fall of communism as a viable alternative have increased the appeal of Islamic movements such as Islamism, Islamic fundamentalism, and Islamic democracy, especially in the context of popular dissatisfaction with secularist ruling regimes in the Muslim world.