Politics of Andorra

The politics of Andorra take place in a framework of a parliamentary constitutional monarchy, and a multi-party system. Executive power is exercised by the government, with the Head of Government of Andorra as chief executive. Legislative power is vested in both the government and parliament. The judiciary is independent of the executive and the legislature.

Before 1993, Andorra's political system had no clear division of powers into executive, legislative, and judicial branches. A constitution ratified and approved in 1993 establishes Andorra as a sovereign parliamentary democracy that retains the president of France and bishop of Urgell as co-princes and heads of state. However, the head of government retains executive power. The two co-princes serve coequally with limited powers that do not include an individual veto over government acts (however, a bill can in effect be "vetoed" if both do not sign the legislation). They are each represented in Andorra by a personal representative.

The fundamental impetus for this political transformation was a recommendation by the Council of Europe in 1990 that, if Andorra wished to attain full integration in the European Union (EU), it should adopt a modern constitution that guarantees the rights of those living and working there. A Tripartite Commission made up of representatives of the co-princes, the General Council, and the Executive Council was formed in 1990 and finalized the draft constitution in April 1991, making the new constitution a fact.

One remaining, though symbolic, legacy of Andorra's special relationship with France and Spain, is that the principality has no postal service of its own French and Spanish postal services operate side by side, although each of them issues separate stamps for Andorra, instead of using their own.