Politics of Australia

The politics of Australia take place within the framework of a federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy. Australia has maintained a stable liberal democratic political system under its Constitution, one of the world's oldest, since Federation in 1901. Australia is the world's sixth oldest continuous democracy and largely operates as a two-party system in which voting is compulsory.[1][2] The Economist Intelligence Unit rated Australia a "full democracy" in 2021.[3] Australia is also a federation, where power is divided between the federal government and the states and territories.

Politics of Australia
Polity typeFederal parliamentary constitutional monarchy
ConstitutionConstitution of Australia
Formation1 January 1901
Legislative branch
NameParliament
TypeBicameral
Meeting placeParliament House
Upper house
NameSenate
Presiding officerSlade Brockman, President
Lower house
NameHouse of Representatives
Presiding officerAndrew Wallace, Speaker
Executive branch
Head of State
TitleMonarch represented by Governor-General
CurrentlyElizabeth II represented by David Hurley
Head of Government
TitlePrime Minister
CurrentlyAnthony Albanese
Cabinet
NameCabinet of the Federal Executive Council
Current cabinetAlbanese Ministry
LeaderPrime Minister
Deputy leaderDeputy Prime Minister
Ministries30
Judicial branch
NameJudiciary
CourtsCourts of Australia
High Court

The federal government is separated into three branches:

Legislative BranchExecutive BranchJudicial BranchHouse of RepresentativesSenateFederal Executive CouncilCurrent MinistersPrevious MinistersGovernment DepartmentsOther federal courts
Structure of the Government of Australia

The Australian system of government combines elements derived from the political systems of the United Kingdom (fused executive, constitutional monarchy) and the United States (federalism, written constitution, strong bicameralism), along with distinctive indigenous features, and has therefore been characterised as a "Washminster mutation".[5]


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